Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) – BitcoinWiki
FPGA, Safety und Security – 5 Punkte, auf die es ankommt
FPGA Mining: What is FPGA Mining in Cryptocurrency ...
FPGA Bitcoin Miner – BitcoinWiki
Best $100-$300 FPGA development board in 2018?
Hello, I’ve been trying to decide on a FPGA development board, and have only been able to find posts and Reddit threads from 4-5 years ago. So I wanted to start a new thread and ask about the best “mid-range” FGPA development board in 2018. (Price range $100-$300.) I started with this Quora answer about FPGA boards, from 2013. The Altera DE1 sounded good. Then I looked through the Terasic DE boards. Then I found this Reddit thread from 2014, asking about the DE1-SoC vs the Cyclone V GX Starter Kit: https://www.reddit.com/FPGA/comments/1xsk6w/cyclone_v_gx_starter_kit_vs_de1soc_board/ (I was also leaning towards the DE1-SoC.) Anyway, I thought I better ask here, because there are probably some new things to be aware of in 2018. I’m completely new to FPGAs and VHDL, but I have experience with electronics/microcontrollers/programming. My goal is to start with some basic soft-core processors. I want to get some C / Rust programs compiling and running on my own CPU designs. I also want to play around with different instruction sets, and maybe start experimenting with asynchronous circuits (e.g. clock-less CPUs) Also I don’t know if this is possible, but I’d like to experiment with ternary computing, or work with analog signals instead of purely digital logic. EDIT: I just realized that you would call those FPAAs, i.e. “analog” instead of “gate”. Would be cool if there was a dev board that also had an FPAA, but no problem if not. EDIT 2: I also realized why "analog signals on an FPGA" doesn't make any sense, because of how LUTs work. They emulate boolean logic with a lookup table, and the table can only store 0s and 1s. So there's no way to emulate a transistor in an intermediate state. I'll just have play around with some transistors on a breadboard. UPDATE: I've put together a table with some of the best options:
A very simple FPGA development board that plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so you have a "backup" hard-core CPU that can control networking, etc. Supports a huge range of pmod accessories. You can write a program/circuit so that the Raspberry Pi CPU and the FPGA work together, similar to a SoC. Proprietary bitstream is fully reverse engineered and supported by Project IceStorm, and there is an open-source toolchain that can compile your hardware design to bitstream. Has everything you need to start experimenting with FPGAs.
Xilinx Zynq 7-Series SoC - ARM Cortex-A9 processor, and Artix-7 FPGA. 125 IO pins. 1GB DDR2 RAM. Texas Instruments WiLink 8 wireless module for 802.11n Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.1. No LEDs or buttons, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard. If you want to use a baseboard, you'll need a snickerdoodle black ($195) with the pins in the "down" orientation. (E.g. The "breakyBreaky breakout board" ($49) or piSmasher SBC ($195)). The snickerdoodle one only comes with pins in the "up" orientation and doesn't support any baseboards. But you can still plug the jumpers into the pins and wire up things on a breadboard.
Has one of the latest Xilinx SoCs. 2 GB (512M x32) LPDDR4 Memory. Wi-Fi / Bluetooth. Mini DisplayPort. 1x USB 3.0 type Micro-B, 2x USB 3.0 Type A. Audio I/O. Four user-controllable LEDs. No buttons and limited LEDs, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard
Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC (ARM Cortex-A9, 7-series FPGA.) 1 GB DDR3 RAM. A few switches, push buttons, and LEDs. USB and Ethernet. Audio in/out ports. HDMI source + sink with CEC. 8 Total Processor I/O, 40 Total FPGA I/O. Also a faster version for $299 (Zybo Z7-20).
Same as DE10-Standard, but not as many peripherals, buttons, LEDs, etc.
icoBoard ($100). (Buy it here.) The icoBoard plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so it's similar to having a SoC. The iCE40-HX8K chip comes with 7,680 LUTs (logic elements.) This means that after you learn the basics and create some simple circuits, you'll also have enough logic elements to run the VexRiscv soft-core CPU (the lightweight Murax SoC.) The icoBoard also supports a huge range of pluggable pmod accessories:
numato Mimas A7 ($149). An excellent development board with a Xilinx Artix 7 FPGA, so you can play with a bigger / faster FPGA and run a full RISC-V soft-core with all the options enabled, and a much higher clock speed. (The iCE40 FPGAs are a bit slow and small.)
I ordered a iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board to try out the IceStorm open source tooling. (I would have ordered an icoBoard if I had found it earlier.) I also bought a numato Mimas A7 so that I could experiment with the Artix 7 FPGA and Xilinx software (Vivado Design Suite.)
What can I do with an FPGA? / How many LUTs do I need?
VexRiscv is "A FPGA friendly 32 bit RISC-V CPU implementation." This is a RISC-V implementation written in SpinalHDL. VexRiscv has a lot of plugin and configuration options. The Murax SoC is a very light SoC that can run on an iCE40-HX8k (but probably not the 1k FPGA that only has 1,280 LUTs). The Briey SoC only runs on Xilinx or Altera FPGAs.
Why I see Virtcoin as a $200 coin when really considering ASIC resistance
First of all, Vertcoin does indeed have a tremendous community, and this is not to be understated. However, this is only a fraction of the value position of this coin. I just want to expand on the ASIC resistance thing a bit. As an electrical engineer who has actually designed ASIC's, I do have some background on this. What I can tell you is that this term "ASIC Resistant" is that it is a little bit misleading. In theory, any algorithm can be turned into an ASIC. An ASIC or Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a digital or analog or mixed analog digital circuit that has been cast into Sea of Gates, Semi-Custom, or Full Custom ASIC technology. The cheapest route is Sea of Gates. If one didn't want to do a Sea of Gates ASIC, they could implement an algorithm in a FPGA, or Field Programmable Gate Array. Altera and Xilinx are the dominant players here. In the early days of Bitcoin, there were many FPGA miners, this was a very common way to mine Bitcoin. Overall, It takes somewhere between USD $50,000 to $1,000,000 to make an ASIC. It's an expensive process. There is a tremendous amount of engineering, where the circuit is designed in System Verilog, Verilog or VHDL, and very extensive testbenches to make sure that the when the chip is made it works the first time. Engineers prototype ASICs in FPGA's, and the development boards for ASIC emulation can cost $20k or more just in themselves. Then the design goes to a foundry where the chip is made, and that will be expensive, $50k to $500k. So there has to be motivation to make an ASIC, such as high volume chip sales. For Sea of Gates technology, a rule of thumb is that there is typically a break even point when a company sells 1,000 to 2,000 chips a year that has been made into an ASIC. That is because Sea of Gates is about a $100k process. The ASIC Resistance of Vertcoin is not technology related, i.e. the algorithm that is currently being used could be made into an ASIC. What makes Vertcoin ASIC resistance is the commitment of the team to change the algorithm if someone does make an ASIC to mine Vertcoin. This is what gives Vertcoin it's value position. I really appreciate that! This is a de-facto way to limit the power of miners, in one simple swipe. How wants to deal with this Bitcoin forking situation anymore? At this point, with the upcoming fork, it seems more and more unnecessary. I see Bitcoin as a storage of value layer, and other coins such as VTC and LTC as transaction layer coins. To me what gives VTC value is the intention of the community AND the consequent action of it.
I specialize in developing MVP electronic prototypes for small to mid size companies and can work with you on requirements gathering, schematics, PCB layout and firmware. My past successful projects include audio, ultrasound, high speed I/O for scientific instrumentation, low power video processing, and general 12/24V automotive, marine, and industrial controls up to IP67. Very familiar with NXP/Microchip/general ARM MCU's and Altera FPGAs. Please check out my portfolio! No home base right now, but in the US atm if time zone is important. Typically working out of Asia. $60/hr, accept bitcoin, and willing to negotiate fixed bids. Check out my resume here.
I specialize in developing MVP electronic prototypes for small to mid size companies and can work with you on requirements gathering, schematics, PCB layout and firmware. My past successful projects include audio, ultrasound, high speed I/O for scientific instrumentation, low power video processing, and general 12/24V automotive, marine, and industrial controls up to IP67. Very familiar with NXP/Microchip/general ARM MCU's and Altera FPGAs. Please check out my portfolio! No home base right now, but in the US at the moment. Typically working out of Asia. $60/hr, can discuss fixed bids, and also accept bitcoin. Check out my resume here.
I specialize in developing MVP electronic prototypes for small to mid size companies and can work with you on requirements gathering, schematics, PCB layout and firmware. My past successful projects include audio, ultrasound, high speed I/O for scientific instrumentation, low speed video, and general 12/24V automotive, marine, and industrial controls up to IP67. Very familiar with NXP/Microchip/general ARM MCU's and Altera FPGAs. Please check out my portfolio! Looking for remote contracts, but potentially open to long term employment with the right company. Currently based in Taipei. $60/hr, accept bitcoin, and willing to negotiate fixed bids. Check out my resume here.
I specialize in developing MVP electronic prototypes for small to mid size companies and can work with you on requirements gathering, schematics, PCB layout and firmware. My past successful projects include audio, ultrasound, high speed I/O for scientific instrumentation, low speed video, and general 12/24V automotive, marine, and industrial controls up to IP67. Very familiar with NXP/Microchip/general ARM MCU's and Altera FPGAs. Please check out my portfolio! Based in Taipei atm. $60/hr, accept bitcoin, and willing to negotiate fixed bids. Check out my resume here.
i said AMD and NVDA is overvalued and it became obvious.
Yes. i've said that AMD and NVDA is overvalued stock. and you should invest to INTC. AMD's Zen uarch isn't match with INTC's coffeelake uarch even now. of course i9-9900k has many problem and consumer's disappointment is Intel's fault totally. but, their counterpunch is comming. Intel's 10nm process has many profit than TSMC's 7nm HPC. they are not a moron. same situation was happend in 2006 - when AMD's AthlonX2 beat the shit out of Intel's pentuim IV processor -. and NVDA's GPU isn't best solution for AI Acceleration. it's obvious if you had seen Bitcoin market. people had mined Bitcoin by GPU at first but soon they make thier own Logic and synthesize FPGA and order ASIC to mine more coin effectively. same thing is happning in AI market. already Xilinx and Altera make AI Acceleration HW and it's way better than GPU. Intel already got Altera and Xeon scalable series has internal FPGA. IMO, INTC's price is deciline slowly before 2019 1Q but once they proove their ability by 10nm icelake CPU, price will soar over 100$ in 1~2years. already INTC's EPS is near 3$ while MSFT's EPS is 2$. Folk's opinion is just trash. but you should got some attention on Expert's opinion. although i'm not a one of Experts, i'm always looking for Expert and Developer's opinion and they always said people got some misunderstands on intel's movement. it's green light if you can move against folks.
There's a pretty interesting debate in the AI space right now on whether FPGAs or ASICs are the way to go for hardware-accelerated AI in production. To summarize, it's more about how to operationalize AI - how to use already trained models with millions of parameters to get real-time predictions, like in video analysis or complex time series models based on deep neural networks. Training those AI models still seems to favor GPUs for now. Google seem to be betting big on ASICs with their TPU. On the other hand, Microsoft and Amazon seem to favor FPGAs. In fact Microsoft have recently partnered with Xilinx to add FPGA co-processors on half of their servers (they were previously only using Intel's Altera). The FPGA is the more flexible piece of hardware but it is less efficient than an ASIC, and have been notoriously hard to program against (though things are improving). There's also a nice article out there summarizing the classical FPGA conundrum: they're great for designing and prototyping but as soon as your architecture stabilizes and you're looking to ramp up production, taking the time to do an ASIC will more often be the better investment. So the question (for me) is where AI inference will be in that regard. I'm sure Google's projects are large scale enough that an ASIC makes sense, but not everyone is Google. And there is so much research being done in the AI space right now and everyone's putting out so many promising new ideas that being more flexible might carry an advantage. Google have already put out three versions of their TPUs in the space of two years Which brings me back to Xilinx. They have a promising platform for AI acceleration both in the datacenter and embedded devices which was launched two months ago. If it catches on it's gonna give them a nice boost for the next couple of years. If it doesn't, they still have traditional Industrial, Aerospace & Defense workloads to fall back on... Another wrinkle is their SoCs are being used in crypto mining ASICs like Antminer, so you never know how that demand is gonna go. As the value of BTC continues to sink there is constant demand for more efficient mining hardware, and I do think cryptocurrencies are here to stay. While NVDA has fallen off a cliff recently due to excess GPU inventory, XLNX has kept steady. XLNX TTM P/E is 28.98 Semiconductors - Programmable Logic industry's TTM P/E is 26.48 Thoughts?
I specialize in developing MVP electronic prototypes for small to mid size companies and can work with you on requirements gathering, schematics, PCB layout and firmware. My past successful projects include audio, ultrasound, high speed I/O for scientific instrumentation, low speed video, and general 12/24V automotive, marine, and industrial controls up to IP67. Very familiar with NXP/Microchip/general ARM MCU's and Altera FPGAs. Please check out my portfolio! Looking for remote contracts, but potentially open to long term employment with the right company. Currently based in Taipei. $60/hr, accept bitcoin, and willing to negotiate fixed bids. Resume
Hi all, I am obviously new here, but have good reputationelsewhere I am quite happy to jump through any hoops that give you additional peace of mind :) If you live near Margate, UK you are welcome to pick up in person or I will ship (even internationally) as long as you cover the shipping costs. Got lots of stuff I don't want, the prices I'm listing are just rough guidelines, If you can find any of my stuff cheaper elsewhere I will certainly lower my price. I pretty much did a rough price guestimate using eBay listings. Things with (boxed) mean that I have the original box for them. Some stuff I havn't priced up, just make sensible offers :) I will accept pretty much any payment method if possible, Paypal, Bitcoin, BACS Transfer, etc. Just ask! :) Without further ado, things: £350 - Saphire AMD 6990 £70 - 7 x XFX ATI HD 5870 1GB (boxed) 1 £40 - 4 x Corsair CX600 Builder series 600W power supplies (boxed) 1 £20 - 6 x AMD Sempron 140 2.7ghz processors (Maybe dual core unlockable) (boxed) 1 £5 - 3 x Kingston ValueRAM 2GB DDR3 1066Mhz memory (boxed) 1 £30 - 6 x Asus M4N68T-M LE V2 motherboards (boxed) 1 £140 - 1 x Iiyama E2607WSV 1920x1200 26" Monitors 2 £50 - Antec CP-850 850W power supply (requires CPX form factor case)3 £50 - Altera DE0 (Cyclone 3) FPGA (Brand new unused but open box)4 £35 - O2 Joggler hackable tablet thingy, powered by an Intel atom and most Linux distros have been ported. (boxed)5 NZXT Sentry LXE Touch screen fan controller 6 Asus P5VD1-X motherboard 7 Pentium 4 3ghz (I think, this hasn't seen the light of day in a while :p) 7 2 x 1GB DDR 400Mhz Adata memory 7 If you are curious about where all this stuff has been / come from, here's some history on everything :) 1) All of this stuff was purchased for bitcoin mining back in May 2011. It's all been faithfully mining in my spare bedroom since then, has turned a nice little profit, and is now a bit too slow to compete with all the other miners, so it's gotta go! photo 1photo 2 2) These used to be the monitors I used on my main desktop. I decided to upgrade to 2560x1440 monitors, so these are now sitting in the spare bedroom not doing much. They were always great monitors though! photo 3) Used to be the power supply in my main PC, however when I upgraded to a new motherboard I could no longer fit my SLi setup in since the PSU was right up against the bottom of the board and I needed to utilise the bottom slot. Remember that this is the new CPX form factor by Antec, so you'll either need an Antec case or a hacksaw to get it to fit ;) 4) Bought this for bitcoin experimentation but never ended up using it. It got took out of the box and I looked at it, that was about it. Never been used and in the original box with all the things. 5) These are great fun especially for the price, I bought it and used it as a bedside clock for a while (Yay Ubuntu+Conky). I use my Nexus 7 to do this job now though, so this has been relegated to the cupboard. Has a green stuck pixel right on the edge of the screen. You can find lots of info about hacking them here 6) Used to use this as my fan controller but switched to a couple of BitFenix recons because I fan control in software. Looks really cool though. Shame I can't have this and software control really! :P 7) Used to be my old gaming PC, got relegated to being the home theatre PC and then got relegated to the cupboard :P, Hasn't been used in a while but I assume it all still works, will test it before I send it off. That's all, again feel free to ask me any questions. or negotiate on the prices (especially if your ordering more than one thing). I'm on IRC (Freenode) should you want to IM me. :)
Hello my fellow shibes, sit back for a sad story :( So a year or so ago I played around with bitcoin mining for a few weeks. I've got an assortment of Altera development boards, so naturally I tried mining BTC on them. They did pretty okay -- I'm getting 120Mhash/sec on the Altera SOCkit (Cyclone 5) using basically someone's open-source project ported to this device, with no optimization. I had also written an optimized core for a smaller device and doubled its performance, so it stands to reason that I could probably get around to 200Mhash with some careful coding on this board. Pretty reasonable; competitive with lower-end graphics cards at significantly lower power dissipation. Of course, by the time I was doing this, commercial ASIC miners were just coming on the scene and blow FPGAs out of the water! I mined a few mBTC, then moved on to other things and forgot about cryptocurrencies for a while. Along comes Dogecoin (woof!)! Fire up my laptop with GT620M graphics and get 25kHash. Decide to look at an FPGA implementation again (starting with an open source project here ). Port it to the Cyc5, flash it, and get... 1.5kHash. Not good. Now, there's room for ~4 cores, so that's 6kHash theoretical with the unoptimized core. I started thinking of potential optimizations, and even started writing a new core, but paused and did some calculations and the results aren't good. It really is a memory-bound algorithm! The FPGA only has enough memory for 4 full scratchpad blocks (or 8 half, etc.), meaning that folding more than 4 processing cores into a pipeline is more than a waste. A 4-deep salsa pipeline has really long path lengths, making for a low max clock rate... but a longer pipeline (with a correspondingly faster clock rate) has more wasted cycles. We can do partial scratchpads and regenerate the missing data to keep the pipeline more full, but this has diminishing returns, some quick calculations it's asymptotic to about 2x improvement (and this is theoretical; adding more complexity overall tends to slow the core down). The thing is, modern GPUs are running 256-512bit memory interfaces, at 2-4GHz, to 2-4GB memory. That memory bandwidth and size is just something an FPGA cannot reach, at least not at a competitive price point. Even the high-end Altera FPGAs don't have more than a handful of MB of RAM. Moreover, it's hard to even get enough I/O pins to implement a 512-bit memory interface on an FPGA, and it certainly won't be running at 4GHz! So, TL;DR: GPUs win this round! A custom FPGA board with a very wide external memory might be competitive, and an ASIC could be competitive (but would basically be a GPU). No FPGA for this shibe :(
What are the advantages of Field Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGA), how do they differ from Application Specific Integrated Circuits(ASIC) in computers? Why have they gotten so popular recently?
I've been attempting to read up on the recent acquisition by Intel of Altera and I understand what Altera does from the standpoint they make FPGA chips versus Intel's ServeWorkstation/Mobilty chips. But I can barely explain the difference between a Xeon Chip and a Core i7, wrapping my head around the tech of FPGA is really confusing. I understand they're made for specific applications, like Wikipedia has them used in guided missles, switches, MRI machines, etc. But why couldn't someone just code firmware for an intel chip? Are current-tech intel chips not able to use firmware? Is firmware where the "field programmable" part comes in? I read where the CEO of intel made a comment talking about how this acquisition will enable the continuation of Moore's law. And I'm wondering how he's going to integrate or hybridize the current intel lineup with this brand new set of toys(patents) they just bought. As always, any insight would be great. I learn best with examples, e.g. I understood the whole bitcoin mining GPU vs CPU situation really well. I just don't have a sense of anything that's using FPGA technology, and where it's advantages/disadvantages lie. Any insight into that decision making process would be fantastic as well. As always, thank you reddit and thank you /askscience
Hashrate of Altera's SHA256 "megafunction" on Hardcopy FPGAs
I'm an electrical engineer by qualification but I've spent the past 20 years in software development, so I'm a bit rusty on the eleceng side these days. But I still know enough to get myself into trouble :) I've been looking into available SHA256 algorithms and found a datasheet on Altera's SHA256 "megafunction" here. It's a SHA256 implementation that can be used in ASIC and FPGA designs. The datasheet mentions that the processing of one 512-bit block is performed in 66 clock cycles and the bit-rate achieved is 7.75Mbps / MHz. There's a table showing throughput on various Altera chips. The Hardcopy HC210F484C runs at a maximum clock frequency of 152MHz, permitting a throughput of 1152Mbps with the algorithm. Given the Bitcoin hashing algorithm is a double SHA256 operation, it would appear that this chip can deliver a hashing rate of approximately 576Mh/s. Would this be correct? A very quick check on the price of these chips here shows they're anywhere from USD$0.01 to USD$9.90, depending on quantity. If the above is all true and I haven't made any mistakes, this could make for a very cheap mining rig. Can anyone verify my analysis or have I made huge mistakes? UPDATE: Hashrate is 152MHz / (2*66) cycles = 1.15Mh/s. Thanks to deeper-blue and MaybeJustNothing.
Altera. The compile the code on an different Altera device then DE2-115, you need to set the Device to be the correct one. Find the correct fpga package number and add it, for the DE0-Nano this is EP4CE22F17C6. Be sure to select the correct one, because the hardware effects the location of your pins, which you will need in the clock pin step. A completely open source implementation of a Bitcoin Miner for Altera and Xilinx FPGAs. This project hopes to promote the free and open development of FPGA based mining solutions and secure the future of the Bitcoin project as a whole. A binary release is currently available for the Terasic DE2-115 Development Board, and there are compile-able projects for numerous boards. Stars. 926. Become A ... FPGA Bitcoin Mining. At the foundation of block creation and mining is the calculation of this digital signature. Different cryptocurrencies use different approaches to generate the signature. For the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, the signature is calculated using a cryptographic hashing function. For those unfamiliar with cryptographic hashes, hashes calculate a fixed-length unique ... Manche Anbieter, wie zum Beispiel Altera, trennen in ihren FPGA-Lösungen den für funktionale Sicherheit zuständigen Bereich vom Rest. Diese können, wenn ein automatisierter Prozess geändert werden muss, separat angepasst werden, ohne die Safety-Partition anzufassen. Auf eine kostspielige vollständige Neu-Zertifizierung kann so verzichtet werden, und auch bei der Entwicklung kann gespart ... Altera . The compile the code on an different Altera device then DE2-115, you need to set the Device to be the correct one. Find the correct FPGA package number and add it, for the DE0-Nano this is EP4CE22F17C6. Be sure to select the correct one, because the hardware effects the location of your pins, which you will need in the clock pin step.
ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner - Duration: 4:08. Burak 14,597 views. 4:08 . Tiny YOLO v1 on FPGA inference comparisons (NVDLA small configuration) - Duration: 3:45. Nichox Luo 610 views. 3:45 ... Practice of a miner carried out in Verilog, where the algorithm SHA-256 is stored, uses programs in TCL that receive the Blockheader of the pool slush.com Lancelot FPGA Bitcoin Miner Unboxing Feel free to donate to keep more Tutorials coming: ... Innovate with Altera DE1-SoC Board - Duration: 5:09. terasicTV 23,396 views. 5:09. Learn to Build a ... Are FPGA miners profitable? Today I will review FPGA mining and analyze the latest FPGA miner to be released, the Blackminer F1+! Subscribe to VoskCoin YT - ... If you guys have more questions regarding this FPGA please let me know down below! I will make more videos including new algorithm's, solar power setup with ...