Farmers markets and Bitcoin: What's cooking in the crypto ...

Carbon Neutral Bitcoin Mining

Computers generate heat. Lots and lots of it. We usually then spend money and energy to cool them down. Why don't we use this excess heat for heating?! :)
Bitcoin is problematic from a climate perspective because its core algorithm runs meaningless calculations to prove that actual time and money have been spent (proof of work). This work consumes a lot of energy and produces a lot of heat. Even more energy is then consumed to run fans, water pumps, or refrigeration units to cool it back down. Then, about 5 meters away, there'll usually be a heater heating water or air to make the humans comfortable or to cook food.
Hey! Why not cut out the middle man :)

Computers are as efficient as space heaters
submitted by hraun to CrazyAmazingClimate [link] [comments]

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

Why is it so fucking difficult to die?

I never wanted to exist. I want to die. There isn't anything in this world that's going to change my mind. I don't want to get better. My mental and physical illness might actually be curable but I don't want to get better. I never enjoyed life and the only reason I am alive is simply due to my parents' selfishness and their decision to bring this misery upon me. I never asked to be born and no, life isn't a 'gift'. Life is pain, misery and dread.
I am too much of a coward man. I tried to take my life once but didn't do any research on my method so obviously, as you can see, I failed tremendously. I took a bunch of Xanax pills and downed them with alcohol hoping they'll make me go into cardiac arrest or maybe make me stop breathing...a simple google search would've saved me some time, because you need HUGE amounts of benzos in order to overdose and die...yet I went through it because it was an impulse decision so not much thought was put into it.
I woke up with a terrible headache and in a pile of vomit. I wish I had the courage to attempt it again, in a different way, but I'm too much of a pussy. That failed attempt disappointed me so much because it proved me that I'm such a failure that I can't even kill myself. I've been researching suicide methods ever since, but I just can't bring myself to do it, yet I somehow will. I need to.
 
Looked up every single suicide method. Most of them have a high chance of survival and it can leave you crippled and even more miserable. Others, will leave you in agonizing pain for a few minutes or even hours before you die and I just don't have the guts to go for it. I am a huge coward. Who knows, maybe I'm just not ready to kill myself yet, as much as I want it??? Possibly.
Jumping in front of a train? Nope, there's a chance of living through it and suffering 100 times more. Jumping off a building? Literally same. If you're unlucky, you can jump off a skyscraper and survive (there's an actual story of some dude who fell off a 47-floor building and survived). Shooting my brains out would probably be my best deal but since I live in a shithole of a country in Eastern Europe, it's nearly impossible for me to get a gun. I'm currently doing some research on hanging since it's the most accessible and inexpensive suicide method out there and I've read that you can calculate the height of your jump in order to break off your spinal cord and die instantly. But if you miscalculate, you will either end up decapitated or you'll be awake and conscious through the whole thing and it can take you 15 minutes of unbearable pain to finally succumb to hanging. Overdosing on pills? I can't think of anything besides opiates since everything else will just fuck you up even more without actually killing you.
So what am I left with? Oh yes, opiates. Good old heroin. There's stories on the web from people who have survived heroin ODs and said that it was absolute bliss. You just go in a deep sleep and (hopefully) don't wake up. No hallucinations or paranoia or shit that you'd experience with other types of drugs. Just peace.
 
So I started to look for a heroin plug in my area. It's not easy living in a small city because you're out of luck. At some point, I was so desperate that I stopped giving a fuck about the risks involved and I just straight up started questioning people if they knew any heroin dealers in the area. I was met with surprised reactions, some were weirded out, some were concerned. Luckily, I'm not in prison so lucky me I guess, would be a shame to run into an undercover cop or something. Long story short, I couldn't find a dealer for the love of me. So here I am, browsing the darknet.
It took me a few weeks to learn the ropes. There's special software like Tails, Tor, PGP/Kleopatra, and the bitcoin wallet of choice. Still, no one will actually guarantee that you don't get scammed. I'm still struggling with the actual encryption of the messages so that I won't get in trouble. It fucking sucks. I just want to die and I can't understand all the unnecessary struggle I need to undergo. I wish it were as simple as going to the hospital, signing a paper and asking for a lethal shot. Yet, only a few countries around the world have legalized euthanasia and it fucking blows. I didn't choose to come into this life so why am I forced to stay?
I can't find anyone who is willing to fucking help. I have tried reaching out online, both on the clearnet and the darknet and all the feedback I've received was from people who "want me to get better". Why the fuck does everyone attach this special value to life? Why does everyone care about a random stranger's death so much? I don't want to live, is it a crime to hate life? It certainly seems so.
 
There's so much stuff I'm going to risk. I thing I have found a potential vendor on the darknet who has great reviews and feedback. I'm going to order from him as soon as I figure out how to convert real money into cryptocurrency. I might just wake up with the cops knocking on my door, who knows? Maybe my pack will get seized. I might be thrown in jail since my country has stupid drug laws. Even if I DO get my hands on heroin, I know nothing about it. I don't know how to shoot up and missing a vein can lead to amputation. Can you freaking believe it? You're trying to off yourself but instead you end up with an amputated arm. Amazing. I know nothing about how to cook the heroin, how to shoot it up and how much to take. I know nothing about the purity of heroin and I might end up with some shit grade heroin that isn't going to kill me anyway. There's no fucking way to die peacefully. But anyway, I'll go through this. Not sure why I even wrote this, just needed to vent I guess.
 
Wish me luck.
submitted by FeatheredDrake to SuicideWatch [link] [comments]

Weekly Update: Mini-Parenas, Hydro AMA on Uptrennd, Wibson app update, SelfKey’s $KEY on Hotbit... – 24 Jan - 30 Jan'20

Weekly Update: Mini-Parenas, Hydro AMA on Uptrennd, Wibson app update, SelfKey’s $KEY on Hotbit... – 24 Jan - 30 Jan'20
Hi Parachuters! Here’s part IV of VII as we catch up - your week at Parachute + partners (24 Jan - 30 Jan'20):

In this week’s Parena(s), Cap hosted mini-Parenas (smallest, 2nd smallest, 3rd smallest) this week along with a main Cloodfest which Jeff won to take home 25k $PAR. We also had a special 2nd quick subsequent Parena between Nathan and Foo to determine the 3rd and 4th positions. Alejandro will be hosting a CoD flash game in gun game mode next week in the Parachute War Zone. This week Doc Vic hosted an NBA and Soccer raffle. Bose's History Trivia in TTR was super fun and had 2k $PAR in prizes per question. Gamer Boy’s math trivia had TTR fans reaching for a calculator. Haha. Foo hosted another intense trivia in TTR as well. Afful held another one too for 1k $PAR prize per question with a 10k $PAR prize pot. Cap joined a Y Combinator startup school session to network with other entrepreneurs and gain insights on product growth. Congratulations to Aims1 for winning the #parttrenjraffle (shared in the last update) and becoming the proud owner of two rare collectibles. Gian hosted a rapid round of name-a-tennis-player for $PAR prizes to mark the Australian Open underway. TTR launched a GIF contest this week with a 40k $PAR prize pool. Sweet! Chris announced the restart of the Parachute Super Bowl Squares with a prize pot of 1M $PAR. Whoa! For this week's Two-for-Tuesday we had folks posting songs "featuring bands with amazing guitarists". Great theme GC! For #wholesomewed Jason got Parachuters to talk about pets they wished they had. In the latest #FPL update shared by LordHades, the top 3 spots are still occupied by LH, Alexis and Novel Cloud. Click here for the full update.
Some neat feedback on ParJar from the Y Combinator startup school session
Cap: \"a sneak peak at a one pager we're cooking up\"
The aXpire team was in India this week for a workshop geared towards the release of Bilr. 20k $AXPR burn for the week happened like clockwork. 2gether’s consumer spending report (which was released last week) was covered by Coin Rivet this week. Check out 2gether’s 2019 journey, here. Spanish speakers, you can listen to Founder Salvador Casquero’s thoughts on digital business which he shared with AEFI Fintech Association here. FunOntheRide’s new tutorial video explains how the 2gether card works. This week’s #XIOSocial discussions revolved around high-value-no-profit companies and Citizen’s thoughts on “inverted lending platform”. Read about how to earn to earn crypto and about the SMS industry from Birdchain’s blog. Still waiting to check out the 3 new communities on Uptrennd? Click here to have a peep. If you didn’t know this already, you can now create polls on your posts on Uptrennd. Cool! Click here to read about more updates. Hydro crew sat down for an AMA with the Uptrennd community and gave away 100k $HYDRO tokens for the best questions. Jeff’s interview of Zero Collateral DeFi came out this week. You can read about it here. Congrats to the winners of the Uptrennd Meme Contest. Those were hilarious! For a sneak peek into Uptrennd 2.0’s designs, click here. Steven Aitchison's (CYT Crypto) latest video features the platform. Have a look! The District0x community voted to have industry news in the next DApp Digest stream. For the latest District Weekly, click here. Hydro made it to Crypto Weekly’s list of 250 crypto companies to watch in 2020. The Hydro team wrote about Financial Health Check and Emergency Savings Fund tools to get you prepared for a rainy day. Their article on challenges during digital onboarding processes at banks should be an eye opener for legacy organisations. Epic work Artefe Crypto Art! How will Digital Identity Management play out in the Hydro Pay app? Click here to find out. Silent Notary’s AMA with Quora Inner Circle was last week. Its transcript was released this week. This week they appeared for an AMA with The Block Circle. The Ubikiri app was released this week to the App Stores. Winner of Round 1 of Traders Battle was announced. And just like previous weeks, they posted daily summaries of dev work progress (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
Uptrennd 2.0 early previews look great!
Sentivate’s $SNTVT token is now supported on the Enjin wallet and does not need to be added as a custom token. Ahead of ETHDenver, where OST’s Pepo app is the official community app, a guide was published. The latest update allows login with a multitude of IDs. CEO Jason Goldberg was interviewed by Jason Nelson (Crypto Insights Journal) where he talked about community building on the blockchain. Check out this blog post by State of the DApps which discusses unique use-cases of Pepo. SelfKey’s $KEY token is now tradable and playable on Play Royal. To celebrate the occasion, competitions were launched with prize pools worth USD 6k in $KEY tokens. The token was also listed on Hotbit and InstaSwap this week. Click here and here for sneak peeks into the SelfKey mobile app under development. Constellation CEO Ben Jorgensen spoke at the Crypto 2020 Summit this week. Community member Constellation LV is currently working on a Ledger app for the project. Click here for a preview. A Russian language section was added to the website. CTO Wyatt Meldman-Floch demonstrated how double spend attacks can be prevented. In Yazom’s January update, founder Sanjé Witter shared that the open beta was on course for release in a couple of months. Pynk’s Rose AI continues to learn and self-improve through advanced algos and inputs from Super Predictors. Read more about it here. Unsure what crowdfunding and seed rounds mean? Pynk will be raising through this mechanism soon. In preparation for it, they released an article to explain what it is and how to pre-register for it. Plus, an article on compounding explains why it is so powerful. A new update for the Wibson app was released this week. The latest version of their protocol paper covers secure data exchange and batch payments. Harmony’s $ONE token swap was covered by Coindesk and BeInCrypto. BitMax launched a BitTreasure event where users earn interest on $ONE deposits. Harmony hosted a dev community meetup in SF in collaboration with Polkadot, Taxa Network and Nervos Network to discuss on Web3. GET Protocol crew appeared for an AMA with Cryptoverse this week. GUTS Tickets got featured on Finnish tech blog Tivi. Crypto Jen (Jenny from the Blockchain) joined Global Crypto Alliance as an advisor this week. $CALL is now supported on Eidoo wallet. The transcript of last week’s COTI AMA with tehMoonwalkeR can be seen here. COTI released incentive plans to reward its TestNet node operators. TxBit exchange announced its support for DoYouTip’s $DYT token swap. ParJar holders will also have their tokens swapped automatically.

And with that, it’s a wrap for this week at Parachute and partners. See you again soon. Cheers!
submitted by abhijoysarkar to ParachuteToken [link] [comments]

2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Thanksgiving Update

05-APR-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Bull Market…?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg50467456#msg50467456
20-APR-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Easter Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg50681435#msg50681435
12-MAY-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Sell In May And Go Away?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51017295#msg51017295
17-JUN-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Solstice Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51505513#msg51505513
28-JUL-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Inflection Point
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51975328#msg51975328
26-OCT-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Trick or Treat…?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg52880531#msg52880531
24-NOV-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Thanksgiving Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53171045#msg53171045
24-DEC-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Christmas Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53430396#msg53430396
From an Elliott Wave perspective, two scenarios are under consideration at this inflection point: a continuing Bull Scenario or a Bear Scenario.
In either scenario, the Elliott Wave model proposes a five wave structure, consisting of: three advancing bull market waves, interwoven with two declining bear market waves. Overlaying this model onto Bitcoin suggests:
Wave-1: the first bull market wave 2010-2013 (1219 days), followed by; Wave-2: the first bear market wave 2013-2015 (426 days), followed by; Wave-3: the second bull market wave 2015-2018 (1065 days), followed by; Wave-4: the second bear market wave 2018-2019 (363 days), followed by; Wave-5: the third and final bull market wave 2019-? 
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/iGXd6tX.png
The five aforementioned have been considered as PRIMARY degree waves —such waves elapse the course of a few months to a couple of years. Each PRIMARY degree wave is constituted of five INTERMEDIATE degree waves; and in turn, so forth into smaller degree fractals.
The Bull Scenario suggests Wave-5 is still underway, with subdividing and extending waves headed for new all-time highs.
The Bear Scenario suggests Wave-5 completed at the 26-JUN-2019 high as a truncated fifth wave failure, and a bear market is underway.
Bull Scenario
The bullish scenario suggests a continuing bull market is underway. PRIMARY[5] wave started from the 06-FEB-2019 low, and has completed its first parabolic uptrend labelled as INTERMEDIATE(1) wave at the 26-JUN-2019 high.
—BTC: https://i.imgur.com/KYg0V4j.png
INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback started at the 26-JUN-2019 high, and retraced an almost Fibonacci 61.8% thus far of the 2019 bull market, into the 23-OCT-2019 low.
This 4-month decline had initially appeared to have completed an INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback when the market suddenly spiked and surged over 40% within a day —attributed to news of Chinese leader Xi Jinping reportedly stating China should “seize the opportunity” offered by blockchain. The surge was the third largest 24-hour price gain in Bitcoin's history.
However, since the spike high on 26-OCT-2019, the market has steadily sold-off and now returned back to the 23-OCT-2019 low; and hence, erasing the entire late OCT surge. The surge is now being considered as a B-wave as part of an ongoing INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback. In hindsight, it ought to have been obvious this Thanksgiving Turkey isn’t cooked yet:
“B waves are phonies. They are sucker plays, bull traps, speculators' paradise, orgies of odd-lotter mentality or expressions of dumb institutional complacency (or both). They often involve a focus on a narrow list of stocks, are often ‘unconfirmed’ by other averages, are rarely technically strong, and are virtually always doomed to complete retracement by wave C. If the analyst can easily say to himself, ‘There is something wrong with this market,’ chances are it's a B wave.” —Elliott Wave Principle Key to Market Behavior; A.J. Frost, Robert Prechter.
From the B-wave high set on 26-OCT-2019, C-wave of INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback has been underway and is expected to conclude at the following Fibonacci support zones, using BITSTAMP:
@7230: 61.8% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [AVG] @5425: 78.6% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [MAX] @4350: 88.6% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [WARNING: Bull Market Terminated?] 
In addition to the aforementioned support zones, the following additional midway Fibonacci zones can be sought as support for this current INTERMEDIATE(2) decline, using BITSTAMP:
@7055: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.500 @6280: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.618 @5170: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.786 
Summary of support zones, using BITSTAMP: 7230, 7055, 6280, 5425, 5170, 4350
At time of writing, price is currently meandering between the first two aforementioned support levels.
Once INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback has completed, a rising INTERMEDIATE(3) is expected to commence to resume the bull market. Such a wave is expected to unfold parabolically in nature, and at a minimum, meet or exceed the PRIMARY[3] high set on 17-DEC-2017. In both price and time, this wave is expected to be the longest of the PRIMARY[5] bull market.
Where the PRIMARY[5] bull market ends is open to interpretation and speculation.
From an Elliott Wave perspective: A common wave relationship guides the price of the fifth wave to be equal to; or extend a Fibonacci 1.618 or 2.618 times; the length from the low of the first wave through to the high of third wave; projected from the low of the fourth wave. This provides a conservative target of the current bull market to conclude between $22,912 or $35,127 or $54,892, calculated using the BraveNewCoin (BLX) index:
@22912: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 1 @35127: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 1.618 @54892: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 2.618 
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/Mz3IHcD.png
As and when the waves develop and progress, and in the event of subdividing and extending waves, revised price targets shall be calculated with renewed projections.
Bear Scenario
The bear market scenario suggests the 2019 bull market was a short-lived affair, and PRIMARY[5] terminated as a failed-fifth truncated wave.
PRIMARY[5] started from the 15-DEC-2018 low and completed at the 26-JUN-2019 high. A Fibonacci 88.6% retracement of this uptrend is at 4350 BITSTAMP —a decline to this point ought to signal the goose is cooked and market has favoured to deflate.
—BTC: https://i.imgur.com/OZjUq7g.png
In this scenario, five completed PRIMARY degree waves have completed a CYCLE I wave structure. And now, a CYCLE II wave bear market pullback is underway and headed to break below the 2018 low.
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/fzmPfhy.png
The wider cryptocurrency market in terms of the Altcoins currently appear to support the outlook of a bear market. So far in 2019, the price structure of majority Altcoins has seemingly unfolded in corrective A-B-C advancing waves, instead of impulsive 1-2-3-4-5 waves. This suggests the majority of Altcoins may be set to break their respective 2018 lows unless an intervention can be coordinated…
—ETH: https://i.imgur.com/AwmCpAh.png
Analysis is purely speculative, and projections are indicative of price & structure, not time. Happy Thanksgiving!
UPDATES: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53197756#msg53197756
submitted by 12345abcde00001 to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

[Monday April 8 2019] Cats recognize their own names—even if they choose to ignore them; Stanford expels student admitted with falsified sailing credentials; Russia moves to free nearly 100 captive whales after outcry; Super fungus that kills nearly half of its victims in 90 days has spread globally

/blog

/worldnews

/news

/UpliftingNews

  • kcgg123
    [Title Post] Russia moves to free nearly 100 captive whales after outcry
    Comments || Link

/science

  • mvea
    Testosterone increased leading up to skydiving and was related to greater cortisol reactivity and higher heart rate, finds a new study. “Testosterone has gotten a bad reputation, but it isn’t about aggression or being a jerk. Testosterone helps to motivate us to achieve goals and rewards.”
    Comments || Link
  • ekser
    A potential new immune-based therapy to treat precancers in the cervix completely eliminated both the lesion and the underlying HPV infection in a third of women enrolled in a clinical trial.
    Comments || Link

/medicine

  • LastManCrying
    [Title Post] 'No need to tell the public': Super fungus that kills nearly half of its victims in 90 days has spread globally
    Comments || Link

/history

  • CreesC
    When does the need for having walls to defend cities became irrelevant?
    Comments

/space

/technology

/business

  • hipointconnect
    'Influencer Fraud' Costs Companies Millions of Dollars. An AI-Powered Tool Can Now Show Who Paid to Boost Their Engagement.
    Comments || Link

/AskHistorians

/AskReddit

/todayilearned

  • JamOnTheOne
    TIL Principal Akbar Cook installed a free fully-stocked laundry room at school because students with dirty clothes were bullied and missing 3-5 days of school per month. Attendance rose 10%.
    Comments || Link
  • persiancaviar
    TIL that Steve Martin's wedding came as a surprise to his guests. The roughly 75 star-studded attendees (including the likes of Tom Hanks, Diane Keaton, Eugene Levy, and Carl Reiner) said that he had invited them to his house just for a "party." To their shock, upon their arrival his wedding began.
    Comments || Link
  • PM-ME_YOUR_TITS-GIRL
    TIL that it cost $20 million to evict the last four tenants of a Manhattan apartment building to renovate it. The last tenant was so stubborn and savvy that he received $17 million of the money, plus use of a $2 million condo for life.
    Comments || Link

/IAmA

  • supercaz
    Similar to lab-grown meat, I am the co-founder of a recently funded startup working on the final frontier of this new food movement, cow cheese without the cow - AMA!
    Comments

/coolguides

/Cooking

/GifRecipes

/movies

  • RoyisOurBoy
    Official Poster for Parasite (2019), the latest movie from Bong Joon-Ho (Memories of Murder, Mother, Snowpiercer & Okja)
    Comments || Link

/gaming

/Art

/WritingPrompts

  • Lord_Vermoud
    [WP] You're a financial advisor. In 1994, you get a weird phone call from a man asking you if he can get any Bitcoin below $200k, and the call cuts off before you can ask him what Bitcoin was. Years later you get a call again from the same man, claiming he's calling back seconds after disconnection.
    Comments

/OldSchoolCool

/pics

/gifs

/videos

/oddlysatisfying

/mildlyinteresting

/interestingasfuck

/MostBeautiful

/aww

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is...

/nocontextbooks

Its top 3 all time posts
submitted by kaunis to tldr [link] [comments]

[Monday, February 4 2019] undersea robot just delivered 100,000 baby corals to the Great Barrier Reef; Microsoft preparing to bring Xbox Live to iOS, Android, and Nintendo Switch; Netflix to Acquire Zac Efron Ted Bundy Movie ‘Extremely Wicked, Shockingly Evil and Vile’

/news

/UpliftingNews

/science

  • mvea
    New research provides evidence that religious and spiritual beliefs lower the risk of depression because they’re associated with changes in white matter microstructure, the communication pathways of the brain, based on brain imaging of family members at high risk for depression.
    Comments || Link

/technology

  • speckz
    The 'Right to Repair' Movement Is Gaining Ground and Could Hit Manufacturers Hard - The EU and at least 18 U.S. states are considering proposals that address the impact of planned obsolescence by making household goods sturdier and easier to mend.
    Comments || Link

/dataisbeautiful

  • chartr
    Word clouds and lyric analysis of Maroon 5 albums released 15 years apart illustrates how they have become more "pop" than "rock". [OC] from Instagram @chartrdaily.
    Comments || Link

/business

/stocks

/gadgets

  • mspoonygp
    [Title Post] Microsoft preparing to bring Xbox Live to iOS, Android, and Nintendo Switch
    Comments || Link

/askscience

/AskHistorians

  • BRIStoneman
    In the 1930s, Germany supported a terrorist campaign designed to topple the fascist government of Austria, to the extent that it nearly came to war with Italy and Austria. Why were the Nazis so violently opposed to what should have been an ideologically compatible regime?
    Comments

/finance

  • ashbender
    A free, online graphing calculator with lots of Finance customizable formulas
    Comments || Link

/AskReddit

/todayilearned

  • The_Best_Nerd
    TIL that the NFL made a commitee to falsify information to cover up brain damage in their players
    Comments || Link
  • throwaway732912
    TIL that 1972 democratic vice presidential candidate Thomas Eagleton was forced to drop out of the race after he was humiliated by the "revelation" that he had been treated for chronic depression.
    Comments || Link
  • zepphiu
    TIL that a Carl's Jr. in Santa Rosa, California, untouched by surrounding wildfires, caught fire when staff made 165 hamburgers for first responders.
    Comments || Link

/Cooking

/food

/Baking

/movies

  • OneSimplyDoes
    [Title Post] Netflix to Acquire Zac Efron Ted Bundy Movie ‘Extremely Wicked, Shockingly Evil and Vile’
    Comments || Link
  • BunyipPouch
    Idris Elba to Star in Supernatural-Thriller 'Deeper' - Will play a deep-sea diver exploring a newly discovered trench, soon finding himself confronted by a sinister and dangerous force.
    Comments || Link

/sports

  • chiefsassy
    Atleast the Dallas Stars did Spongebob right
    Comments || Link
  • TooShiftyForYou
    JaVale McGee, who won a championship with the Warriors last year but now plays for the Lakers, finally got his championship ring when the two teams played on Saturday
    Comments || Link

/television

/Art

/OldSchoolCool

/pics

/gifs

/oddlysatisfying

/mildlyinteresting

/interestingasfuck

  • 9w_lf9
    The “Goth Chicken”, Ayam Cemani. This chicken is all dark, even its bones and internal organs
    Comments || Link

/MostBeautiful

/aww

/Awwducational

  • OIOIOIOIOIOIOIO
    Any love for baby coral? These are being transplanted en masse via a sea-robot to repair the Great Barrier Reef. They grow slow, 0.5-1 inch per year on average. It can take 10,000 years to grow into a reef.
    Comments || Link

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is...

/wheredidthesodago

Its top 3 all time posts
  • souffle-etc
    Is your dumb kid sad because nobody bullies them? Fuckin' glue some paint to their head
    Comments || Link
  • kirosenn
    Jim forgave his wife for her one-time affair but he would be damned if he had to treat that kid the same as his own.
    Comments || Link
  • Camsy34
    Look at how distraught Megan is! This is what it will feel like if Net Neutrality dies. Don't let the FCC make you like Megan!
    Comments || Link
submitted by kaunis to tldr [link] [comments]

We gave away food here in Venezuela thanks to r/btc donations! Thank you

Hi all
I want to update you guys on what happened today. I was contacted this week by a couple users(I'm not gonna named them since I don't if they would like that) that wanted to support and sponsor meals here in Venezuela. I think you guys already know what's the situation here is like.
My family used to do meals a few months ago to give away at the church we go to, so this wasn't our first rodeo.
We stopped making food a few months ago because my grandma got sick and died a few months ago, and then my grandpa got sick around November and died a few weeks ago. So we didn't had the time or the money. There have been talks on our church to keep doing them again but most people cant help, they barely have for themselves or don't even have enough.
One thing we learned was that most people don't have enough food, including us. But there are some who are in critical condition that needs it the most. Something we learned was that as the weeks go by the word spread and new people started coming looking for food, so we had to make smaller portions to give something to everyone or make a soup since it can feed more for less.
Chatting a bit with the users, we agreed that I'll had to hold a paper with the date and my username on it so that it proves I didn't picked the images from the internet.
So I thought in buying the newspaper and write next to the date. The date is of yesterday since I bought yesterday when we got everything else. We are Adventist and we try not to buy stuff on the Saturdays as much as possible.
The user told me to make a meal to give to the people that needs it the most. The other option would have been to buy packages of flour,rice,sugar,etc and give them away, it helps them the longest but it's much more expensive.
The thing is, the meal would have to be once a week, since we would be using the church as a hotspot because we don't have a good kitchen to prepare them or a car to move the food around.
So we finally settled on the soup. And I was already planning with my parents what church members could help us to set everything up so this Saturday we give the soup to the people that needs it the most. We started contacting people to see if they were willing to help. BUT WAIT. I forgot that this weekend was the Carnaval, so many people were going to visit their families, or take a vacation, or go camping(our church does a camping every Carnaval here). So the people I had in mind couldn't help us this weekend. So we were thinking whatimgonnadoo(bitconnect dude), but I couldn't let them down and I was afraid the users would think I was scamming him or something.
My mom wanted to make a potato salad but serving would have been cumbersome and more expensive since we would have to buy plastic plates and spoons, and after some calculations we wouldn't have enough for it. So we finally settled to make arepas and stuffed them with scrambled eggs and vegetables, we could use our tinfoil to cover them so the delivery will be easier.
And we had to use our kitchen at the end, so we started cooking everything earlier, I woke up at 6 am and my mother already chopped all the vegs so I couldn't took a pic of them raw, and on top of that my brother woke up feeling very sick. Anyway we were still able to do everything, a little later than we thought but we did it. Here are the pictures. Sorry that I didn't took more pictures, I forgot about it at first, and then took others without using the newspapetag, sorry that some came out blurry.
I want to be the most transparent I can be, so here are the prices of the things I bought :
BF= Bolivar Fuerte (the currency here)
6 eggs= 250.000 BF
40 arepas = 160.000 BF(we got them just in time since the lady selling was just gonna increase the price to 5.000 ea, but my mom was able to convince her to sell us these at 4.000)
Onions, tomatoes, garlics, sweet peppers, sweet chiles = 651.500 BF
Tinfoil= ??? I have no idea how much it is right now, we used one we had saved from last year, its probably very expensive now.
We also used things like salt, cooking oil, etc. But we used from what we had already.
The cab and the newspaper were the most difficult things even though it was 20.000 and 7.000 respectively, they had to be purchased by cash. And cash is insanely difficult to find right now. Banks barely give you 10.000 if you're lucky after waiting for hours, and if you buy cash from the black market you have to pay a 100-150% fee. So if you want 100.000, you have to pay 200.000-250.000.
I imagine its hard to trust people online, so it means a lot to me.
BTW I'm not part of @BitcoinCashVE, so far I've not seen proof they are actually doing what they say. Who knows, I hope they have. So to avoid any possible confusion I created a new Twitter account @EatBCH were I'm going to keep you guys posted on what we're doing.
Thank you, because of you, there are people going to sleep tonight with food on their stomachs. God bless you.
Also, AMA I guess. Please understand I'm very tired right now so I wont be answering right away.
Edit: Forgot to add the address I received the BCH for this: qpkhxm73rjlt0k34hynz5amamx5ex8umzs7t08xv3x
Now im looking for someone to sell them to since I basically runned out of BF.
submitted by PopeJohnXXII to btc [link] [comments]

Lost all federal loan money in the cryptocurrency market, disclosures to C&F?

Throwaway for obvious reasons. My life has been an absolute roller coaster the last several months. I'm a 2L at a T3, and decided to take a calculated risk that has backfired catastrophically. I utilized all of my student loan disbursements (roughly $10K) and invested into the cryptocurrency market, specifically in Bitcoin.
Bitcoin, at that time, was around $16K per coin and seemed to be going up without pausing. I made a neat profit and decided to hang in to see how long the gravy train would keep rolling. I've lost nearly everything. If that financial ruin wasn't bad enough, my mother broached the idea of how it would effect my bar application process. I've been living with my mother during my investment, and she's been a great help, cooking, cleaning, and letting me read in peace in her room. I didn't immediately think her comment had any merit, but upon further consideration, I feel this may be something I have to disclose, similar to the way I would feel compelled to disclose a gambling habit or drug problem. My state is very strict, and my school has repeatedly emphasized that honesty is the ONLY policy re: C+F. The Bar WILL find out where we have omitted relevant information pertaining to our ability to practice.
I'm not sure what to do. I'm thinking about asking my mother to hire a C+F attorney to discuss the issue with him. I also am concerned that law professors will now speak unfavorably re: my character if the Bar asks them. I have developed (very) close relationships with a few professors and shared my investment plan and resulting losses with then. If the Bar asks them about my fitness to practice, will they mention my investment failures? Or my ensuing mental breakdown that I shared with them?
Not sure what to do. I fucked everything up. Need some advice.
submitted by brokenlawstudent to LawSchool [link] [comments]

In The City Of Meatbot-Powered Killers (part 4)

Table of Contents.
Part 3.
I hit the dark web for a few minutes, burned a couple of Bitcoin for a block of stolen credit card numbers, and searched for what the hell just happened downtown.
While I took a couple of the platinum card accounts to activate some of my burner phones (their fraud support will save them some charges, and I'll still have some prepaid phones to work with), I digested what the Army and Air National Guard just did.
(*26 hours ago, in RQZ HQ...)
Col. {Jones}, HQ "Six" (HQ6): This is Six, go ahead, sir.
Adjutant General, New York National Guard (AGNY): This operation is strictly need-to-know now, Six. It has been designated "Top Secret: Compartmentalized" at the highest levels, and the code name attached is "Glass Chipmunk."
HQ6: What the... who comes up with this shit... uh, sir?
AGNY: Some spook at the NSA. More time on their hands than sense.
HQ6: Yes, sir.
(Side note: The reason top secret stuff gets odd code-names is because they are words you would not accidentally say in a normal conversation. Try to work "Glass Chipmunk" into a sentence without sounding like you're crazy. It *might** work with someone with a curio collection... sort of like Alpine Shepherd Boy... but otherwise, you will stand out.*)
AGNY: How is the perimeter?
HQ6: Solid, sir. Nothing is getting out of there. We've had a few... anomalies, but no breaches.
AGNY: "Anomalies?"
HQ6: Well... it appears that the mad scientists' little toys don't hole up well in non-humans. We've had some animals come to the wire and just melt. The larger ones, we need to put down... have you ever tried shooting a cat and her kittens? They melted, too.
AGNY: I'll arrange to get some more men rotated in. Things like that obliterate morale.
HQ6: Thank you, sir... but we need a longer-term solution to this. We've gotten lucky, so far, in that only a few infected have tried to hit us. Tracers work well, so we've taken to loading all of our SAWs with nothing else. If they hit us in anything larger than 3 or 4 at a time, we're gonna get overrun in a heartbeat and a half, and you'll have a lot more than a city's worth of these things to worry about.
AGNY: Roger that, Six. I gotta tell ya, Tom... I've never thought, not even once, that we'd be talking about bombing American citizens.
HQ6: Roger that, Six. Voting demographic will definitely shift.
AGNY: Are you suggesting...
HQ6: No, sir. Just a bit of gallows' humor. Whistling in the graveyard, as it were.
AGNY: How about our reluctant big-brain?
HQ6: Still no sign of him. We lost him during his move towards the campus. We think he's in the Advanced Research Labs facility on campus, but we're not sure enough to risk an extraction team in a hostile-heavy area of the city.
AGNY: We have a good set-up on the plaza. Give the green light for the Reaper to launch. You are covered.
HQ6: That's an order?
AGNY: Direct order, Tom. Take solace in the fact that it's an act of mercy for the poor bastards.
HQ6: Yes, sir.
(23 hours ago.)
Reaper drone pilot, designated RD-3: On station, awaiting instructions.
HQ6: What's your load, RD-3:
RD-3: I have 4 Hellfires, sir. I see the target, awaiting order.
HQ6: You've been briefed as to the situation?
RD-3: Yes, sir. Glass Chipmunk. (almost inaudible chuckle)
HQ6: Right. When you have the target locked, you are cleared to engage.
RD-3: Order received. Lightin' em up.
Video footage from RD-3
It's daytime, timestamp on the video is 1106. Wide shot of a square plaza surrounded by concrete and glass buildings, in a Brutalist architectural style.
In the plaza is a large, pulsating mass of bodies, covered in dirt, rags, dried "blood" (in reality, it's mostly meatbots at this point), sweat, and strips of dried flesh.
A fountain in the center has kept these people hydrated since the outbreak. It has allowed this... gathering... to continue unabated.
"Gathering" is too weak a word. It's like a Roman orgy crossed with Cannibal Holocaust or Green Inferno.
The weakest have either stayed at the fringes and devoured what scraps they can, knowing that they have no chance at survival in the main body, or threw themselves in early, were torn to shreds and eaten whole, in order to kill the all-consuming hunger driving them.
The strongest have formed a horrific symbiosis, tearing chunks off of each other, letting chunks get torn from them, then healing enough to repeat the process. The looks of pain when injured are almost indistinguishable from the looks of rapture when they devour a neighbor.
There is no "sex," per se. Hunger has replaced sexual desire. If anything, the erogenous zones seem to be the most targeted areas for consumption... and since they grow back, they get targeted a lot.
I don't want to look. I want to make a bad joke about oral sex and fix myself a bottle of rum. Better still, a keg.
I look anyway.
At 1113, a missile tears into a fuel truck abandoned at the east end of the plaza. The angle is perfect: flaming kerosene or diesel splashes over the crowd, and thick clouds of boiling black smoke quickly fill the space.
Some of the (un)lucky few who escaped the initial blast run away.
Most, either sensing a well-cooked meal or realizing this will end the agonizing hunger, dive into the center of the holocaust.
In one strike, the National Guard have eliminated about 3/4 of the population of [REDACTED].
I've been working frantically for the past day, trying to find a way to protect myself from possible infection. I can't think "if" anymore: those idiots out there will see me at some point and launch an extraction. I've seen enough horror movies to know how catastrophically it will fail, and how likely I will be to have highly-trained, inhibition-impaired, hungry, rapid-healing killers at my door.
Yes, I'm a pessimist.
I know now how we got to this point, and I have the entire sequence ciphered out. My meatbots were part of a power struggle within the group, and were weaponized purely by circumstance.
First, Dr. A. He got in to the GATACA compiler and dropped his little brain bomb in the code. Hidden in the "comments" in the DNA (we had plenty of space to put messages in the DNA, and did so frequently to explain why Sequence 8c, for example, was written to repair a long muscle in a certain manner, rather than another) was his excuse:
Dr. A: By the time you read this, you will no longer head this project. If I can strike quickly and "prove" that you bungled the neuro programming, I can capitalize and run this program as I see fit. Some people aren't worth saving. Others should be reprogrammed for the greater good.
Dr. B followed this up by checking out the endocrine codes and cranking hunger to 1000. His excuse:
Dr. B: Need more. We can fund this by selling the old versions on the black market, and keep the excess for ourselves.
Profiteering, meet societal re-engineering.
It might have gone almost unnoticed, except for player 3.
Late in the project, I had an assistant basically forced on me. Dr. C was also a computer scientist, come to us from government service. He said the right things, asked the right questions, and made himself indispensable.
What I didn't know until last night was, he was a military contractor on the side, and was looking for combat applications for the 'bots.
He knew what the other fuckwits had done, and instead of fixing it...
It was he who showed Bobby the "Jesus room" (he used a different name for each guard, knowing they would be impressed with what was within). He managed to get a copy of Steve's key card to the most pliable guards, then waited for the inevitable.
He got very lucky (or unlucky) that we had just begun to prep for primate trials when Bobby's wife died. He had the "perfect" weaponized version of my project, and its spread was the perfect test.
I know this because the dumb fucker emailed his superiors on a civilian email account.
The NSA grabbed him up rapidly after that. He's sitting in Guantanamo Bay, if there's any justice.
What I've learned in the past 48 hours is sickening.
When I was a kid, I read Frankenstein several times. Mary Shelley shares my birthday, so it's like we're soul mates separated by 200 years.
I always told myself, "Don't let hubris be your downfall. You're doing this for mankind. You're not playing God... you're doing God's work, if we really are created in His/Her image."
This has never been about doing it because we could. It's doing it because we need this... to save lives cut too short by disease or accident.
Do this now, decide later how it should be used. That was always the mission.
Now... now, I'm using my knowledge of chemistry to destroy my life's work. I know what to mix for the best explosives I can make given what I have on hand. The labs we've been working will be utterly annihilated.
There's no way this project gets out. They aren't ready.
They aren't worthy.
Before I do that, though, I am going to call several people and let them know what happened. I am going to tell the press why my malignant miracle is being denied to the world.
NOW I'm playing God.
I've already made several vials of my counter-bots and hid them on my person. They're untested, but better than the alternative.
I may have a way to sneak off-campus, and from there I have a possible way to get out of town. It's going to involve laying low after the powers-that-be order a full sweep and cleanup of the bot-ridden, which I fully expect in a week or so.
I did some very rough calculations. Fatty tissues have probably all been digested by now. Protein can be burned for energy, and some of it will be consumed by each repair and replication cycle. I figure that, in 3 or 4 more days, there won't be enough metabolic energy to drive a flea left in anyone with meatbots in their blood.
Before I do anything else, though... time for a smoke.
I head up to the roof, and take a deep breath... then step to the wall and puke as the foul reek of thousands of roasting bodies pours into my sinuses.
I won't be eating barbecue any time soon.
By some dark miracle, I puke right on a bot-ridden at the base of the building. He looks up, then begins licking the vomit off of himself.
Didn't need to see that.
I move away from the wall. I fumble a smoke from the pack, and light up with very shaky hands.
I also crack the seal on the cheap водка I found in a lab assistant's office and take a deep swig. I dislike the cheap stuff... it has this nasty chemical aftertaste.
All of this is distracting me from the little fucker I puked on, who is free-climbing the wall.
I catch the barest hint of movement out of the corner of my eye as he crests the retaining wall and leaps 20 feet across the roof to tackle me.
I drop the водка and spin quickly to meet him. I'm unarmed, because "Of course they can't get to me. I'm behind two locked doors!" and this is going to kill me...
...and it gets close enough for me to see that "he" is a "she," and she's emaciated and nothing but bone, skin and wiry muscle and hunger and fuck I'm going to have to punch a girl to save my life as I loop a right cross straight into her oncoming jaw, and she drops to the roof...
...and I grab my водка and run for the door as she scrambles to her feet and makes the sprint after me with frightening speed, and I stop and duck as she comes at my back and misses her grab and I stand up straight into her jaw and she staggers backwards...
...and I spin around and plant a solid left into her gut and she doubles over but she has a grip on my back and can't bite through my shirt but I stand up straight and she flips over my back to the ground at my heels...
...and I spin again and kick her in the head and she grabs her head and it gives me just enough time to get to the door and open it...
...but she's on her feet and after me and through the door just as I pull it shut and now I'm in the stairwell to the second floor with a crazed bot-ridden woman who lunges for me...
...so I throw her over the railing and she hangs on barely and I'm running down the stairs and to the second floor entryway and through the door...
...and she drops from the railing and down all the way to the first floor and I hear the CRACK-CRACK of both of her legs snapping on impact and she screams in agony but she's up on both broken legs and trying to limp up the stairs...
...and the door to the second floor closes on the stairwell.
I'm now trapped in the building with a for-now injured bot-ridden.
Oh... and my knuckles are bleeding.
I may be infested as well.
submitted by molotok_c_518 to nosleep [link] [comments]

MinedBlock: Mining as a service ((MBTX))

Hello friends. Again, we are here with a new technology that will make our lives easier and offer new opportunities.

Trade is the most impressive interaction between smart and social people. Since the beginning of human history has been engaged in trade. Trade is something we must apply to keep our lives alive today. Thanks to the trade, we can meet many of our needs because our lives are almost all taken care of. In the past, people used the trading method for TRADE and then introduced many innovations in the trade with the invention of money. For example, we need materials for cooking and we can supply these materials from markets.

What is Mining?

Cryptocurrency Mining is a computerised process which decrypts transaction blocks. When a miner processes or finds a block a few things happen: • Pending transactions are processed resulting in a transaction fee for the miner • New crypto assets are minted and awarded to the miner or pool of miners •

The next link in the chain is sealed and confirmed throughout the blockchain creating a permanent record of the transactions and the new generated assets In the early days it was possible to mine with any standard laptop or desktop but as technology has evolved and the blockchain difficulty has increased miners now need to use specialised mining rigs or devices. These fit into 2 categories: GPU Mining Rigs Graphics Processing Units (GPU) or graphics cards, as they are more commonly known, perfectly suit the processing power needed to run the complex calculations to solve ‘blocks’.

Mining and MinedBlock

Digital currencies became even more popular after the introduction of powerful graphics cards and the high value of Bitcoin. Ethereum (ETH) is a very popular digital currency recently. Ethereum, which causes companies to run out of stocks, is attracting more and more people.

Now there is a project in mining that will give a new perspective. Mined block token (MBTX))

MinedBlock wants to bring innovation to the crypto community so everyone can mining. Buying large quantities of mining equipment will help them achieve the best discounts.

They aim to build a large mining facility to serve mine owners. By accessing places where renewable energy prices are very low due to electricity costs, they will solve the problem of making the best profit from mining. Therefore, they will increase the share of mining.

Safed and 100% Transparency

MinedBlock have stated they will take full responsibility for maintaining, replacing and expanding the physical assets and also any costs incurred beyond that of the revenue generated in the unlikely event that the service becomes un-profitable.

ICO details

Token Supply

The total supply of MBTU tokens will be capped at 200,000,000
Initial Exchange Offering — 115,000,000
Public Airdrop — 10,000,000
Bounty Campaign — 10,000,000
Airdrop to MBTX Holders — 30,000,000*
Team/Reserve — 35,000,000**
Token price will be $0.10 per MBTU


https://www.minedblock.io/
https://www.minedblock.io/assets/MinedBlockWhitepaper.pdf

bounty0x username: germandivision
submitted by doenitzkarl77 to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

About MinedBlock

The facts of the crypto economy put mining in a precarious position for 2019. GPU mining is completely dead, and many mining giants are close. So where will the crypto money mining be in 2019?
The lost profit margins will likely continue to centralize the mining power in several large-scale operations, and will become increasingly difficult for individuals to acquire the profit mining cryptocurrency, especially Bitcoin. The crypto world enjoyed the centralization of mining power in these years when the BCH was divided by SV and ABC. Indeed, most experts point to this as the catalyst that shakes the market.
Decreasing returns for miners are being cooked in Bitcoin, so there is not much to do. Moreover, the logic of capitalism meeting the cryptocurrency means that individual miners have nothing to do to compete. A demographic mining shift likely to occur in 2018 is the supportive legislation for mining, as well as competing for mines for countries with cheap energy costs.
What is CPU Mining?
In the early days of Bitcoin, it was possible to mining with any computer (it is still possible, of course, but not materially profitable because it costs much more than its revenue). Even the official Bitcoin client Bitcoin-QT self-mining was openly presented to the user. What we call CPU mining, the computer used in the CPU, the power of the central processing unit of the computer, taking advantage of the above-mentioned mathematical operations to do the computer and as a result was to obtain Bitcoin. But soon after, more people became familiar with Bitcoin, and the mining stream became obsolete, which increased the overall processing speed of the network and raised the level of difficulty. But the end of the era of CPU mining was not the only one. There is another factor that causes this Buna
What is GPU Mining?
Graphics cards are more efficient than processors (CPUs) to solve the mathematical problems required to perform Bitcoin (and some other coins) mining. The reason for this is that the GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit), the processors of the graphics cards, are more efficient in the floating point calculations and the processes required for Bitcoin extraction are intensively used by these calculations. That is to say, in a parable that the GPUs are more effective in the mining process than the CPUs, which will also be understood by those who do not. Çiler If the GPUs are strong and fast mine workers, the CPUs are more qualified, white-collar workers. The CPUs are perhaps more educated and knowledgeable, but GPUs are much more effective for mining.
What is MinedBlock?
MinedBlock Limited will be responsible for the smooth operation, repair and expansion of physical assets, as well as fully cover all expenses incurred in excess of the profits. Under no contingency, users and token holders will not cover any costs and damages in the event of any unforeseen circumstances.
All existing wallet addresses that belong to the company will be posted on the investor's information panel and this will allow all participants to see all the assets of the MinedBlock company at any time.
The main principle of MinedBlock is to provide maximum transparency for all its customers and long-term investors. MinedBlock will fully disclose its plans and intentions, as well as information about progress and profit.
All information on expenses and incomes will be published monthly for review and viewing by all users and tokens holders in order to ensure maximum transparency of the entire platform and service of controlled mining.
Digital needle search in digital straw stack Digital
There is one thing that I want to draw attention to very briefly before I go to the topic: Bitcoin extraction, ie mining to get some bitcoin, is not the sole purpose of mining. Bitcoin miners, also called Blockchain and BTC is one of the features of the BTC and decentralized account to keep the book, which is why this is what it is and what is the subject of another article also be the subject. For now, let's just think of the mining as mak to find/remove bitcoin co Şimd
Bitcoin mining is, in fact, very, very, in summary, the search for a number that is characteristic of your computer, and what makes this number so special is that it is difficult to find and difficult to find.
Bitcoin mining is getting harder
The reason for it to be difficult and difficult is not by chance. This is because the Bitcoin protocol is being designed, a security measure set by Satoshi Nakamoto. This security measure (that is, it is difficult to find) is that everyone can't perform in Bitcoin printing ”(and/or manipulate Blockchain)) according to his head.
Actually, think of the mining as a game of chance that you play on your computer or, as I wrote above, in a straw stack of numbers, again by searching for numbers. Assume that each of your search moves is proportional to your processing power. In this case, the more CPU power you put into this, the more likely you are to find a needle in the haystack.
In the meantime, you can imagine that the digital straw stack in question is gigantic and the needle is tiny. And it is not possible to I start looking from a corner of the haystack asyon and to use the optimization methods in such ways to shorten/increase your chances. This is going to be a bad example, but think that the needle is constantly and randomly displaced.
MinedBlock mining As A Service.
MinedBlock offers the open door for financial specialists to exploit utilizing the assets from a huge scale mining task, mining numerous crypto resources without the need to purchase, design and keep up costly mining hardware.
MinedBlock one of a kind way to deal with this movement gives you a completely verified and agreeable token giving you an offer of responsibility for holding organization behind the administration and not only an ‘arbitrary utility token.
How is MinedBlock Different From Cloud Mining?
With a cloud mining service, you usually purchase contracts for a particular hashrate for 5 years. With such an agreement, it will usually take you about 48 months to compensate for your costs by leaving 1/5 of the contract requirement to make some profit. What many people don't consider is that you'll probably never make a real profit, unless the network challenge will increase at that time, that is, the price of Bitcoin is not dramatically increased.
There are different arrangements out there, for example, cloud mining administrations, yet they aren’t straightforward or financially savvy and MinedBlock means to change that. There have been various mining ICOs directed through 2017/2018 that offered an offer of digging income as an end-result of speculation however that haven’t led their token deal as a controlled Security Token Offering which builds the hazard to speculators.
MinedBlock ICO
Token: MBTX
Token Type: ERC20
Price: 1 MBTX = 0.15 USD
Buy with: BTC,
Buy with: LTC,
Buy with: ETH,
Buy with: BCH
Market Soft Cap: 1,000,000 USD
Market Hard Cap: 30,000,000 USD
Website: https://www.minedblock.io/
Whitepaper: https://www.minedblock.io/assets/MinedBlockWhitepaper.pdf
Bounty0x Username: arifcakir13
submitted by bacaran to CryptoTradingFloor [link] [comments]

Trestolone Acetate

Trestolone Acetate
Trestolone Acetate

Product name: Trestolone Acetate
CAS No.: 6157-87-5
Synonyms:17β-Hydroxy-7α-methylestr-4-en-3-one acetate; 3-Oxo-7α-methylestra-4-ene-17β-ol acetate;
Acetic acid 3-oxo-7α-methylestra-4-ene-17β-yl ester;
NSC-69948; U-15614
Molecular Formula:C21H30O3
Melting Point: 447.571 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight: 330.47
Flash Point: 194.228 °
Density: 1.117 g/cm3
Appearance: White powder
Usage: Pharmaceutical raw materials, bodybuilding and sex enhancement ,Androgen Replacement Therapy

Web: www.rawsgear.com
Web: www.rawsgearpharma.com
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Skype: +8615711952876
Whatsapp +861571195287

Trestolone Acetate Description:

Chemically speaking, trestolone acetate(MENT) actually an alright looking drug. It doesn't show much interaction with Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, which means that a good portion ought to stay unbound and active in the blood. Also, the drug is a potent binder to the androgen receptor, while showing minimal affinity for the progesterone and mineralocorticoid receptors respectively. Since it is not able to be 5a reduced into a dihydroversion, it likely wouldn't cause many of the side effects commonly associated with Dihydrotestosterone. This is also a likely reason that it is less apt to cause prostate enlargement, and may even be indicated for the treatment of specific prostate issues.

The ability of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone acetate (MENT) to increase the weights of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats was four times higher than that of testosterone, while its effect on the weights of bulbocavernosus plus levator ani muscles (muscle), was 10 times that of testosterone.

Various forms of MENT in human pharmaceutical preparations and devices for contraception and hormone therapy, specifically MENT Ac implant and MENT transdermal gel and patch formulations, are currently under clinical investigation. MENT is absorbed transdermally up to three times the rate of testosterone - 17 methyl testosterone and 17-α methyl testosterone.

MENT will have application in a wide range of indications beyond androgen replacement therapy and contraception, including, without limitation, primary hypogonadism, testicular failure, ASIH, baldness, sarcopenia, loss of bone mass, muscle wasting and cachexia, BPH, prostate cancer and of course, bodybuilding and sports performance enhancement.

Trestolone acetate is the chemical name of active ingredient in MENT. MENT is a registered trademark of Population Council, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

Trestolone Acetate 50mg/ml Homebrew
Basic recipe

-1 gram Trestolone Acetate Powder
-16.55 mL Grape Seed Oil (GSO)
-0.6 mL Benzyl Alcohol
-2 mL Benzyl Benzoate

This will achieve a 20 mL solution that has a 50 mg/mL ratio. The 16.55 mL of GSO is calculated based on a 0.85 mL displacement of Trestolone when dissolved. This means that 1 gram of Trestolone Acetate will only take up about 0.85 mL of space. The BA/BB ratio is 3/10.
To make more than 1 gram Trestolone Acetateat a time, simply multiply the amounts by how much you want to do.For example, this guide will demonstrate making 3 grams Trestolone Acetate at one time. The following recipe is used:

-3 grams Trestolone Acetate Powder
-49.65 mL Grape Seed Oil
-1.8 mL Benzyl Alcohol
-6 mL Benzyl Benzoate
Then you will need following items:
-Trestolone Acetate Powder
-Grape Seed Oil
-Benzyl Alcohol
-Benzyl Benzoate
-Empty Vials, sealed and sterile (20mL recommended)
-Large (20mL+) luer lock syringe
-Regular (3mL) luer lock syringe
-A few large gauge luer lock needles (21-18ga recommended)
-Sterile .45u Whatman luer lock syringe filter
-Unsterile .45u Whatman luer lock syringe filter
-A couple small glass jars/beakers to hold your solution
-A large pot/container that can hold hot water and your smaller jar
-Alcohol prep pads
-Paper towels or similar, mainly for cleaning
Trestolone Acetate 50mg/ml cooking step
Make sure your work area is clean. You aren’t going to perform surgery, but you don’t want excessive dirt.
Wipe your empty mixing jars/beakers with an alcohol prep pad, rinse with water, and dry with a paper towel.

Add Trestolone Acetate Powder to one and set to the side. Add some GSO to the other,exceeding the amount needed for your brew. In this case, we need 49.65 mL, so use about 60 mL. Place the GSO jar in the larger container and add hot water to the larger container (NOT THE GSO). This will heat up the GSO for easier filtering.
After heating up, use the larger syringe to draw out some GSO. Screw on the unsterile Whatman filter and start filtering into the jar with the Trestolone Acetate powder.This step may take a few times to finish. For us, we need about 50 mL. The syringe used is 25mL. So, we draw in 25 mL, attach the Whatman, filter, unscrew the Whatman, draw in another 25 mL, reattach the Whatman,and filter the rest. You just need to filter the total needed for the recipe.Using the normal syringe,measure out the appropriate amounts of the Benzyl Alcohol and Benzyl Benzoate. Add to the Trest/GSO solution
At this point, you should have something that looks like mud. This is normal. The Trestolone Acetate is floating around and not much dissolving has happened. Seal off the jar, I use a screw top.
Like we did with the GSO, place the Trest/GSO/BA/BB solution into a bath of hot water to heat it up. You will need to shake up the container to help the dissolving process. Trestolone powder likes to fall to the bottom and clump. Repeat as many times and needed to dissolve most of the Trestolone.
Once most of the Trestolone Acetate dissolves, you’ll have a cloudy dark yellow/orange solution left. You don’t want solid particles floating around. Keep the solution hot.
Grab the large syringe and draw into it enough solution to fill a vial. You may want to pull a little extra on the first vial because the Whatman can hold a full mL itself. Attach the Sterile Whatman filter and slip on a large gauge needle.
Grab a sterile vial, wipe the top with an alcohol pad, and insert a large gauge needle into the top, off center at an angle. This is the venting needle to let out air as you filter in the Trest.
Insert the needle from the syringe into the vial across from the venting needle, at an opposite angle.
Filter.

This stage will take some patience,because the filter will start catching all the bad stuff you don’t want in the solution. There will be a good bit of resistance, just keep at it.Keep the extra solution hot,it makes filtering easier.

How to make order ?

1.Browse our online shop and tell me what product do you want to buy .
2.Contact aimee if there are some problems.
3.Our payment way is Western Union , Money Gram,T/T and Bitcoin.
4.We will send out the parcel in 24 hours after your payment .
5.And then you will get a tracking number .

Welcome to your inquiry !
If you have any questions ,please feel free to contact me .
Manufacturer ---Pharmlab
There are many suppliers in the market ,but look for a reliable supplier is the most important thing. Pharmlab have 98% purity raws with bulk price for distributor partner , and we provide the 100% safe shipping .
  1. USA based delivery to ship , we could guarantee the 100% safe domestic shipping
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  3. Special channel (Only from Pharmlab) ,please send message to us to know more about our process of orders .
https://preview.redd.it/7com8kzjfdb31.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4ea4bdc42df79150c3697e7e472568386770ec1c
submitted by Flora007 to u/Flora007 [link] [comments]

Trestolone Acetate [email protected]

Product name: Trestolone Acetate
CAS No.: 6157-87-5
Synonyms:17β-Hydroxy-7α-methylestr-4-en-3-one acetate; 3-Oxo-7α-methylestra-4-ene-17β-ol acetate;
Acetic acid 3-oxo-7α-methylestra-4-ene-17β-yl ester;
NSC-69948; U-15614
Molecular Formula:C21H30O3
Melting Point: 447.571 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight: 330.47
Flash Point: 194.228 °
Density: 1.117 g/cm3
Appearance: White powder
Usage: Pharmaceutical raw materials, bodybuilding and sex enhancement ,Androgen Replacement Therapy
Web: www.rawsgear.com
Web: www.rawsgearpharma.com
Chemically speaking, trestolone acetate(MENT) actually an alright looking drug. It doesn't show much interaction with Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, which means that a good portion ought to stay unbound and active in the blood. Also, the drug is a potent binder to the androgen receptor, while showing minimal affinity for the progesterone and mineralocorticoid receptors respectively. Since it is not able to be 5a reduced into a dihydroversion, it likely wouldn't cause many of the side effects commonly associated with Dihydrotestosterone. This is also a likely reason that it is less apt to cause prostate enlargement, and may even be indicated for the treatment of specific prostate issues.

The ability of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone acetate (MENT) to increase the weights of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats was four times higher than that of testosterone, while its effect on the weights of bulbocavernosus plus levator ani muscles (muscle), was 10 times that of testosterone.

Various forms of MENT in human pharmaceutical preparations and devices for contraception and hormone therapy, specifically MENT Ac implant and MENT transdermal gel and patch formulations, are currently under clinical investigation. MENT is absorbed transdermally up to three times the rate of testosterone - 17 methyl testosterone and 17-α methyl testosterone.

MENT will have application in a wide range of indications beyond androgen replacement therapy and contraception, including, without limitation, primary hypogonadism, testicular failure, ASIH, baldness, sarcopenia, loss of bone mass, muscle wasting and cachexia, BPH, prostate cancer and of course, bodybuilding and sports performance enhancement.

Trestolone acetate is the chemical name of active ingredient in MENT. MENT is a registered trademark of Population Council, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

Trestolone Acetate 50mg/ml Homebrew
Basic recipe

-1 gram Trestolone Acetate Powder
-16.55 mL Grape Seed Oil (GSO)
-0.6 mL Benzyl Alcohol
-2 mL Benzyl Benzoate

This will achieve a 20 mL solution that has a 50 mg/mL ratio. The 16.55 mL of GSO is calculated based on a 0.85 mL displacement of Trestolone when dissolved. This means that 1 gram of Trestolone Acetate will only take up about 0.85 mL of space. The BA/BB ratio is 3/10.
To make more than 1 gram Trestolone Acetateat a time, simply multiply the amounts by how much you want to do.For example, this guide will demonstrate making 3 grams Trestolone Acetate at one time. The following recipe is used:

-3 grams Trestolone Acetate Powder
-49.65 mL Grape Seed Oil
-1.8 mL Benzyl Alcohol
-6 mL Benzyl Benzoate
Then you will need following items:
-Trestolone Acetate Powder
-Grape Seed Oil
-Benzyl Alcohol
-Benzyl Benzoate
-Empty Vials, sealed and sterile (20mL recommended)
-Large (20mL+) luer lock syringe
-Regular (3mL) luer lock syringe
-A few large gauge luer lock needles (21-18ga recommended)
-Sterile .45u Whatman luer lock syringe filter
-Unsterile .45u Whatman luer lock syringe filter
-A couple small glass jars/beakers to hold your solution
-A large pot/container that can hold hot water and your smaller jar
-Alcohol prep pads
-Paper towels or similar, mainly for cleaning
Trestolone Acetate 50mg/ml cooking step
Make sure your work area is clean. You aren’t going to perform surgery, but you don’t want excessive dirt.
Wipe your empty mixing jars/beakers with an alcohol prep pad, rinse with water, and dry with a paper towel.

Add Trestolone Acetate Powder to one and set to the side. Add some GSO to the other,exceeding the amount needed for your brew. In this case, we need 49.65 mL, so use about 60 mL. Place the GSO jar in the larger container and add hot water to the larger container (NOT THE GSO). This will heat up the GSO for easier filtering.
After heating up, use the larger syringe to draw out some GSO. Screw on the unsterile Whatman filter and start filtering into the jar with the Trestolone Acetate powder.This step may take a few times to finish. For us, we need about 50 mL. The syringe used is 25mL. So, we draw in 25 mL, attach the Whatman, filter, unscrew the Whatman, draw in another 25 mL, reattach the Whatman,and filter the rest. You just need to filter the total needed for the recipe.Using the normal syringe,measure out the appropriate amounts of the Benzyl Alcohol and Benzyl Benzoate. Add to the Trest/GSO solution
At this point, you should have something that looks like mud. This is normal. The Trestolone Acetate is floating around and not much dissolving has happened. Seal off the jar, I use a screw top.
Like we did with the GSO, place the Trest/GSO/BA/BB solution into a bath of hot water to heat it up. You will need to shake up the container to help the dissolving process. Trestolone powder likes to fall to the bottom and clump. Repeat as many times and needed to dissolve most of the Trestolone.
Once most of the Trestolone Acetate dissolves, you’ll have a cloudy dark yellow/orange solution left. You don’t want solid particles floating around. Keep the solution hot.
Grab the large syringe and draw into it enough solution to fill a vial. You may want to pull a little extra on the first vial because the Whatman can hold a full mL itself. Attach the Sterile Whatman filter and slip on a large gauge needle.
Grab a sterile vial, wipe the top with an alcohol pad, and insert a large gauge needle into the top, off center at an angle. This is the venting needle to let out air as you filter in the Trest.
Insert the needle from the syringe into the vial across from the venting needle, at an opposite angle.
Filter.

This stage will take some patience,because the filter will start catching all the bad stuff you don’t want in the solution. There will be a good bit of resistance, just keep at it.Keep the extra solution hot,it makes filtering easier.

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Galileo — Astronomical Discoveries (ii)

by John Lord, LL. D. Galileo has now attained the highest object of his ambition. He is at the head, confessedly, of all the scien- tific men of Europe. He has an ample revenue; he is independent, and has perfect leisure. Even the Pope is gracious to him when he makes a visit to Rome; while cardinals, princes, and ambassadors rival one an- other in bestowing upon his attention and honors. But there is no height of fortune from which a man may not fall; and it is usually the proud, the ostenta- tious, and the contemptuous who do fall, since they create envy, and are apt to make social mistakes. Gal- lileo continued to exasperate his enemies by his arro- gance and sarcasms. "They refused to be dragged at his chariot-wheels." "The Aristotelian professors," says Brewster, "the temporizing Jesuits, the political church- men, and that timid but respectable body who at all times dread innovation, whether it be in legislation of science, entered into an alliance against the philosoph- ical tyrant who threatened them with the penalties of knowledge." The church dignitaries were especially hostile, since they thought the tendency of Galileo's investigations was to undermine the Bible. Flanked by the logic f the schools and the popular interpreta- tion of Scripture, and backed by the civil power, they were eager for war. Galileo wrote a letter to his friend the Abbé Castelli, the object of which was "to prove that the Scriptures were not intended to teach science and philosophy," but to point out the way to salvation. He was indiscreet enough to write a longer letter of seventy pages, quoting the Fathers in support of his views, and attempting to show that Nature and Scrip- ture could not speak a different language. It was this reasoning which irritated the dignitaries of the Church more than his discoveries, since it is plain that the literal language of Scripture upholds the doctrine that the sun revolves around the earth. He was wrong or foolish in trying to harmonize revelation and science. He should have advanced his truths of science and left them to take care of themselves. He should not have meddled with the dogmas of his enemies: not that he was wrong in doing so, but it was not polite or wise; and he was not called upon to harmonize Scripture with science. So his enemies busily employed themselves in collect- ing evidence against him. They laid their complaints before the Inquisition of Rome, and on the occasion of paying a visit to that city, he was summoned be- fore that tribunal which has been the shame and the reproach of the Catholic Church. It was a tribunal utterly incompetent to sit upon his case, since it was ignorant of science. In 1615 it was decreed that Gali- leo should renounce his obnoxious doctrines, and pledge himself neither to defend nor publish them in the future. And Galileo accordingly, in dread of prison, appeared before Cardinal Bellarmine and declared that he would renounce the doctrines he had defended. The cardinal was not an ignorant man. He was the greatest theolo- gian in the Catholic Church; but his bitterness and ran- cor in reference to the new doctrines were as marked as his scholastic learning. The Pope, supposing that Galileo would adhere to his promise, was gracious and kind. But the philosopher could not resist the temptation of ridiculing the advocates of the old system. He called them "paper philosophers." In private he made a mockery of his persecutors. One Saisi undertook to prove from Suidas that the Babylonians used to cook eggs by whirling them swiftly on a sling; to which he replied: "If Saisi insists on the authority of Suidas, that the Babylonians cooked eggs by whirling them on a sling, I will believe it. But I must add that we have eggs and slings, and strong men to whirl them, yet they will not become cooked; nay, if they were hot at first, they more quickly become cool; and as there is nothing wanting to us but to be Babylonians, it follows that Being Babylonians is the true cause why the eggs became hard." Such was his prevailing mockery and ridicule. "Your Eminence," write one of his friends to the Cardinal D'Este, "would be delighted if you could hear him hold forth in the midst of fifteen or twenty, all violently attacking him, sometimes in one house, and sometimes in another; but he is armed after such a fashion that he laughs them all to scorn." Galileo, after his admonition from the Inquisition, and his promise to hold his tongue, did keep compara- tively quiet for a while, amusing himself with mechan- ics, and striving to find out a new way of discovering longitude at sea. But the want of better telescopes baffled his efforts; and even to-day it is said "that no telescope has yet been made which is capable of observ- ing at sea the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, by which on shore this method of finding longitude has many advantages." On the accession of a new Pope (1623), Urban VIII., who had been his friend as Cardinal Barberini, Galileo, after eight years of silence, thought that he might now venture to publish his great work on the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems, especially as the papal censor also had been his friend. But the publication of the book was delayed nearly two years, so great were the obsta- cles to be surmounted, and so prejudiced and hostile was the Church to the new views. At last it appeared in Florence in 1632, with a dedication to the Grand Duke,——not the Cosimo who had rewarded him, but his son Ferdinand, who was a mere youth. It was an un- fortunate thing for Galileo to do. He had pledged his word not to advocate the Copernican theory, which was already sufficiently established in the opinions of phi- losophers. The form of the book was even offensive, in the shape of dialogues. One of them he ridiculed under the name of Simplicio. This was supposed to mean the Pope himself,——so they made the Pope believe, and he was furious. Old Cardinal Bellarmine roared like a lion. The whole Church, as represented by its dignita- ries, seemed to be against him. The Pope seized the old weapons of the Clements and the Gregorians to hurl upon the daring innovator; but delayed to hurl them, since he dealt with a giant, covered not only by the shield of the Medici, but that of Minerva. So he convened a congregation of cardinals, and submitted to them the examination of the detested book. The author was summoned to Rome to appear before the Inquisition, and answer at its judgement-seat the charges against him as a heretic. The Tuscan ambassador expostulated with his Holiness against such a cruel thing, considering Galileo's age, infirmities, and fame, ——all to no avail. He was obliged to obey the sum- mons. At the age of seventy this venerated philoso- pher, infirm, in precarious health, appeared before the Inquisition of cardinals, not one of whom had any familiarity with abstruse speculations, or even with mathematics. Whether out of regard to his age and infirmities, or to his great fame and illustrious position as the great- est philosopher of his day, the cardinals treat Galileo with unusual indulgence. Though a prisoner of the Inquisiton, and completely in its hands, with power of life and death, it would seem that he is allowed every personal comfort. His table is provided by the Tuscan ambassador; a servant obeys his slightest nod; he sleeps in the luxurious apartment of the fiscal of that dreaded body; he is even liberated on the responsi- bility of the cardinal; he is permitted to lodge in the palace of the ambassador; he is allowed time to make his defence; those holy Inquisitors would not unneces- sarily harm a hair on his head. Nor was it probably their object to inflict bodily torments: these would call out sympathy and degrade the tribunal. It was enough to threaten these torments, to which they did not wish to resort except in case of necessity. There is no evidence that Galileo was personally tortured. He was indeed a martyr, but not a sufferer except in humiliated pride. Probably the object of his enemies was to silence him, to degrade him, to expose his name to infamy, to arrest the spread of his doctrines, to bow his old head in shame, to murder his soul, to make him stab himself, and be his own executioner, by an act which all posterity should regard as unworthy of his name and cause. After a fitting time has elapsed,——four months of dignified session,——the mind of the Holy Tribunal is made up. Its judgement is ready. On the 22nd of June, 1633, the prisoner appears in penitential dress at the convent of Minerva, and the presiding cardinal, in his scarlet robes, delivers the sentence of the Court, ——that Galileo, as a warning to others, and by way of salutary penance, be condemned to the formal prison of the Holy Office, and be ordered to recite once a week the seven Penitential Psalms for the benefit of his should,——apparently a light sentence, only to be nominally imprisoned a few days, and to repeat those Psalms which were the life of blessed saints in mediæ- val times. But this was nothing. He was required to recant, to abjure the doctrines he had taught; not in private, but publicly before the world. Will he recant? Will he subscribe himself an imposter? Will he abjure the doctrines on which his fame rests? Oh, tell it not in Gath! The timid, infirm, life-loving old patriarch of science falls. He is not great enough for martyrdom. He chooses shame. In an evil hour this venerable sage falls down upon his knees before the assembled cardinals, and reads aloud this recantation: "I, Galileo Galilei, aged seventy, on my knees before you most reverend lords, and having my eye on the Holy Gospel, which I do touch with my lips, thus publish and declare, that I believe, and always have believed, and always will believe every article which the Holy Catholic Roman Church holds and teaches. And as I have written a book in which I have main- tained that the sun is the centre, which doctrine is re- pugnant to the Holy Scriptures, I, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith, do abjure and detest, and curse the said error and heresy, and all other errors contrary to said Holy Church, whose penance I solemnly swear to observe faithfully, and all other penances which have been or shall be laid upon me." It would appear from this confession that he did not declare his doctrines false, only that they were in opposition to the Scriptures; and it is also said that as he arose from his knees he whispered to a friend, "It does move, nevertheless." As some excuse for him, he acted with the certainty that he would be tortured if he did not recant; and at the worst he had only affirmed that his scientific theory was in opposition to the Scriptures. He had not denied his master, like Peter; he had not recanted the faith like Cranmer; he had simply yielded for fear of bodily torments, and therefore was not sincere in the abjuration which he made to save his life. Nevertheless, his recantation was a fall, and in the eyes of the scientific world per- haps greater than that of Bacon. Galileo was false to philosophy and himself. Why did he suffer himself to be conquered by priests and despised? Why did so bold and witty and proud a man betray his cause? Why did he not accept the penalty of intellectual freedom, and die, if he must? What was life to him, dis- eased, infirm, and old? What had he more to gain? Was it not a good time to die and consummate his protests? Only one hundred and fifty years before, one of his countrymen had accepted torture and death rather than recant his religious opinions. Why could not Galileo have been as great in martyrdom as Savon- arola? He was a renowned philosopher and brilliant as a man of genius,——but he was a man of the world; he loved ease and length of days. He could ridicule and deride opponents,——he could not suffer pain. He had a great intellect, but not a great soul. There were flaws in his morality; he was anything but a saint or hero. He was great in mind, and yet he was far from being great in character. We pity him, while we exalt him. Nor is he world harsh to him; it forgives him for his services. The worst that can be said, is that he was not willing to suffer ad die for his opinions: and how many philosophers are there who are willing to be martyrs? Nevertheless, in the eyes of philosophers he has dis- graced himself. Let him then return to Florence, to his own Arceti. He is a silenced man. But he is silenced, not because he believed with Copernicus, but because he ridiculed his enemies and confronted the Church, and in the eyes of blinded partisans had attacked divine authority. Why did Copernicus escape persecution? The Church must have known that there was something in his discoveries, and in those of Gali- leo, worthy of attention. About this time Pascal wrote: "It is vain that you have procured the con- demnation of Galileo. That will never prove the earth to be at rest. If unerring observation proves that it turns round, not all mankind together can keep it from turning, or themselves from turning with it." But let that persecution pass. It is no worse than other persecutions, either in Catholic or Protestant ranks. It is no worse than burning witches. Not only is intolerance in human nature, but there is a repugnance among the learned to receive new opinions when these interfere with their ascendency. The op- position to Galileo's discoveries was no greater than that of the Protestant Church, half a century ago, to some of the inductions of geology. How bitter the hatred, even in our times, to such men as Huxley and Darwin! True, they have not proved their theories as Galileo did; but they gave a great shock as he to the minds of theologians. all science is progressive, yet there are thousands who oppose its progress. And if learning and science should establish a different mean- ing to certain texts from which theological deductions are drawn, and these premises be undermined, there would be the same bitterness among the defenders of the present system of dogmatic theology. Yet theology will live, and never lose its dignity and importance; only, some of its present assumptions may be discarded. God will never be dethroned from the world he gov- erns; but some of his ways may appear to be different from what was once supposed. And all science is not only progressive, but it appears to be bold and scornful and proud,——at least, its advocates are and ever have been contemptuous of all other departments of knowl- edge but its own. So narrow and limited is the human mind in the midst of its triumphs. So full of preju- dices are even the learned and the great. Let us turn then to give another glance at the fallen philosopher in his final retreat at Arceti. He lives under restrictions. But hey allow hi leisure and choice wines, of which he is fond, and gardens and friends; and many come to do him reverence. He amuses his old age with the studies of his youth and manhood, and writes dialogues on Motion, and even discovers the phenomena of the moon's libration; and by means of the pendulum he gives additional impor- tance to astronomical science. But he is not allowed to leave his retirement, not even to visit his friends in Florence. The wrath of the Inquisition still pursues him, even in his villa at Arceti in the suburbs of Florence. Then renewed afflictions come. He loses his daughter, who was devoted to him; and her death nearly plunges him into despair. The bulwarks of his heart break down; a flood of grief overwhelms his stricken soul. His appetite leaves him; his health forsakes him; his infirmities increase upon him. His right eye loses its power,——that eye that had seen more of the heavens than the eyes of all who had gone before him. He became blind and deaf, and cannot sleep, afflicted with rheumatic pains and maladies for- lorn. No more for him is rest, or peace, or bliss; still less the glories of his brighter days,——the sight of glit- tering fields, the gems of heaven, without which "Neither breath of Morn, when she ascends With charm of earliest birds, nor rising sun On this delightful land, nor herb, fruit, flower Glittering with dew, nor fragrance after showers, nor grateful evening mild, . . . is sweet." No more shall he gaze on features that he loves, on stars, or trees, or hills. No more to him "Returns Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn, or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, Or flocks, ir herds, or human face divine; But clouds, instead, and ever-during dark Surround" [him]. It was in those dreary desolate days at Arceti, "Unseen In manly beauty Milton stood before him, Gazing in reverent awe,——Milton, his guest, Just then come forth, all life and enterprise; While he in his old age, . . . . . . exploring with his staff, His eyes upturned as to the golden sun, His eyeballs rolling." This may have been the punishment of his recanta- tion,——not Inquisitorial torture, but the consciousness that he had lost his honor. Poor Galileo! thine illus- trious visitor, when his affliction came, could cast his sightless eyeballs inward, and see and tell "things un- attempted yet in prose or rhyme,"——not "Rocks, caves, lakes, bogs, fens, and shades of death, . . . . . . . . . Where all life dies, death lives, and Nature breeds . . . . . . . . . Gorgons, and Hydras, and Chimeras dire," but of eternal Providence," and "Eden with surpass- ing glory crowned," and our first parents," and of "salvation," "goodness infinite," of "wisdom," which when we know we need no higher though all the stars we know by name,——— "All secrets of the deep, all Nature's works, Or works of God in heaven, or air, or sea." And yet, thou stricken observer of the heavenly bodies! hadst thou but known what marvels would be revealed by the power of thy wondrous instrument after thou should'st be laid lifeless and cold beneath the marble floor of Santa Croce, at the age of seventy-eight, without a monument (although blessed on his death- bed by Pope Urban), having died a prisoner of the Inquisition, yet not without having rendered to astro- nomical science services of utmost value,——even thou might have died rejoicing, as one of the greatest bene- factors of the world. And thy discoveries shall be forever held in gratitude; they shall herald others of even greater importance. Newton shall prove that the different planets are attracted to the sun in the inverse ratio of the squares of their distances; that the earth has a force on the moon identical with the force of gravity, and that all celestial bodies, to the utmost boundaries of space, mutually attract each other; that all particles of matter are governed by the same law,——the great law of gravitation, by which "astronomy," in the language of Whewell, "passed from boyhood to manhood, and by which law the great discoverer added more to the realm of science than any man before or since his day." And after Newton shall pass away, honored and lamented, and be buried with almost royal pomp in the vaults of Westminster, Halley and other mathematicians shall construct lunar tables, by which longitude shall be accurately measured on the pathless ocean. Lagrange and Laplace shall apply Newtonian theory to de- determine the secular inequalities of celestial motion; they shall weigh absolutely the amount of matter in the planets; they shall show how far their orbits de- viate from circles; and they shall enumerate the cycles of changes detected in the circuit of the moon. Clai- raut shall remove the perplexity occasioned by the seeming discrepancy between the observed and com- puted motions of the moon's perigee. Halley shall demonstrate the importance of observations of the tran- sit of Venus as the only certain way of obtaining the sun's parallax, and hence the distance of the sun from the earth; he shall predict the return of that myste- rious body which we call a comet. Herschel shall con- struct a telescope which magnifies two thousand times, and add another planet to our system beyond the mighty orb of Saturn. Römer shall estimate the velocity of light from the eclipse of Jupiter's satel- lites. Bessel shall pass the impassable gulf of space and measure the distance of some of the fixed stars, although such is the immeasurable space between the earth and those distant suns that the parallax of only about thirty has yet been discovered with our finest instruments,——so boundless is the material universe, so vast are the distances, that light, travelling one hun- dred and sixty thousand miles with every pulsation of the blood, will not reach us from some of those remote worlds in one hundred thousand years. So marvellous shall be the victories of science, that the perturbations of the planets in their courses shall reveal the exist- ence of a new one more distant than Uranus, and Leverrier shall tell at what part of the heavens that star shall first be seen. So far as we have discovered, the universe which we have observed with telescopic instruments has no limits that mortals can define, and in comparison with its magnitude our earth is less than a grain of sand, and is so old that no genius can calculate and no imag- ination can conceive when it had its beginning. All that we know is, that suns exist at distances we cannot define. But around what center do they revolve? Of what are they composed? Are they inhabited by intel- ligent and immortal beings? Do we know that they are not eternal, except from the divine declaration that there was a time when the Almighty fiat went forth for this grand creation? Creation involves a creator; and can the order and harmony seen in Nature's laws exist without supreme intelligence and power? Who, then, and what, is God? "Canst thou by searching find out Him? Knowest thou the ordinances of Heaven? Canst thou bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?" What an atom is this world in the light of science! Yet what dignity has man by the light of revelation! What majesty and power and glory has God! What goodness, benevolence, and love, that even a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without His notice,——that we are the special objects of His providence and care! Is there an imagination so lofty that will not be oppressed with the discoveries that even the telescope has made? Ah, to what exalted heights reason may soar when allied with faith! How truly it should elevate us above the evils of this brief and busy existence to the conditions of that other life,—— "When the soul, Advancing ever to the Source of light And all perfection, lives, adores, and reigns in cloudless knowledge, purity, and bliss!" AUTHORITIES. Dekambre, Histoire de l'Astronomie; Arago, Histoire de l'Astronomie; Life of Galileo, in Cabinet Library; Life of Galileo, by Brewster; Lives of Galileo, by Italian and Spanish Literary Men; Whewell's History of Inductive Sciences; Plurality of Worlds; Humboldt's Cosmos; Nichols' Architecture of the Heavens; Chalmers' Astronomical Discourses; Life of Kepler, Library of Useful Knowledge; Brewster's Life of Tycho Brahe, of Kepler, and of Sir Isaac Newton; Mitchell's Stellar and Planetary Worlds; Brad- ley's Correspondence; Airy's Reports; Voiron's History of Astronomy; Philosophical Transactions; Everett's Orations of Galileo; Life of Coper- nicus; Bayly's Astronomy; Encyclopædia Britannica, Art. Astronomy; Proctor's Lectures. 
from Beacon Lights of History, by John Lord, LL. D., Volume III, Part II: Renaissance and Reformation, pp. 447 - 463 Copyright, 1883, by John Lord. Copyright, 1921, By Wm. H. Wise & Co., New York
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What is a Bitcoin? - YouTube

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