Unique Referencing and Identification in the Token ...

Flatten the Curve. #49. Let's Dig into Jade Helm. AI. The Surveillance State. Internet of Things. FISA. Pentagon Preparing for Mass Civil Breakdown. What is Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio? Stay Aware and Get Ahead of the Curve.

Flatten the Curve. Part 48. Source Here
It's getting crazier day by day now, so are you following the Boy Scout motto?
On this topic, Baden-Powell says: Remember your motto, "Be Prepared." Be prepared for accidents by learning beforehand what you ought to do in the different kinds that are likely to occur. Be prepared to do that thing the moment the accident does occur. In Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell wrote that to Be Prepared means “you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your duty.”
Why should you be prepared? Because TPTB have been preparing, that’s why.
June 12, 2014: The Guardian • Pentagon preparing for mass civil breakdown. Social science is being militarised to develop 'operational tools' to target peaceful activists and protest movements Source Here
Pentagon preparing for mass civil breakdown. It seemed ludicrous back in 2014, didn't it? Inconceivable. Sure some preppers believed it, but they're always getting ready and nothing happened. Doomsday was always right around the corner, and then the next corner, and on and on. Televangelists have probably accused more politicians of being the antichrist than the number of politicians went to Epstein's Island.
But why would they be preparing for mass civil breakdown? Could it be the same reason as why the miltary is preparing for war, droughts and famines brought about by environmental collapse?
February 20, 2020: History Network • Here’s Why These Six Ancient Civilizations Mysteriously Collapsed. From the Maya to Greenland’s Vikings, check out six civilizations that seemingly disappeared without a trace. Source Here
All of these civilizations vanished because of some combination of exhausting their natural resources, drought, plauge, and the little ice age. Sound familiar? Don't tell me that the Rockefeller Foundation and BlackRock became environmentally aware out of a sense of obligation to the planet. They're setting the groundwork for what's coming down the pipe. This isn't about money anymore, this is about control and survival. Throw out the rulebook because the rules no longer apply.
Do you think the surveillance system is for your protection, or the protection of the state? Don't you think that an era of upcoming calamities will severely damage the communication networks, and thus the surveillance system? It might be prudent to consider that Starlink is being established to make the system redundant, so that they never lose track of the precious worker bees before they can be connected to the AI hive mind, right Elon? Neuralink, don't leave home without it.
But let's not forget about the wonderful world of the Internet of Things.
March 15, 2012 • More and more personal and household devices are connecting to the internet, from your television to your car navigation systems to your light switches. CIA Director David Petraeus cannot wait to spy on you through them. Earlier this month, Petraeus mused about the emergence of an "Internet of Things" -- that is, wired devices -- at a summit for In-Q-Tel, the CIA's venture capital firm. "'Transformational' is an overused word, but I do believe it properly applies to these technologies," Petraeus enthused, "particularly to their effect on clandestine tradecraft." All those new online devices are a treasure trove of data if you're a "person of interest" to the spy community. Once upon a time, spies had to place a bug in your chandelier to hear your conversation. With the rise of the "smart home," you'd be sending tagged, geolocated data that a spy agency can intercept in real time when you use the lighting app on your phone to adjust your living room's ambiance. "Items of interest will be located, identified, monitored, and remotely controlled through technologies such as radio-frequency identification, sensor networks, tiny embedded servers, and energy harvesters -- all connected to the next-generation internet using abundant, low-cost, and high-power computing," Petraeus said, "the latter now going to cloud computing, in many areas greater and greater supercomputing, and, ultimately, heading to quantum computing." Petraeus allowed that these household spy devices "change our notions of secrecy" and prompt a rethink of "our notions of identity and secrecy." All of which is true -- if convenient for a CIA director. The CIA has a lot of legal restrictions against spying on American citizens. But collecting ambient geolocation data from devices is a grayer area, especially after the 2008 carve-outs to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Hardware manufacturers, it turns out, store a trove of geolocation data; and some legislators have grown alarmed at how easy it is for the government to track you through your phone or PlayStation. That's not the only data exploit intriguing Petraeus. He's interested in creating new online identities for his undercover spies -- and sweeping away the "digital footprints" of agents who suddenly need to vanish. "Proud parents document the arrival and growth of their future CIA officer in all forms of social media that the world can access for decades to come," Petraeus observed. "Moreover, we have to figure out how to create the digital footprint for new identities for some officers." Source Here
December 19, 2019: New York Times • THE DATA REVIEWED BY TIMES OPINION didn’t come from a telecom or giant tech company, nor did it come from a governmental surveillance operation. It originated from a location data company, one of dozens quietly collecting precise movements using software slipped onto mobile phone apps. You’ve probably never heard of most of the companies — and yet to anyone who has access to this data, your life is an open book. They can see the places you go every moment of the day, whom you meet with or spend the night with, where you pray, whether you visit a methadone clinic, a psychiatrist’s office or a massage parlor. The Times and other news organizations have reported on smartphone tracking in the past. But never with a data set so large. Even still, this file represents just a small slice of what’s collected and sold every day by the location tracking industry — surveillance so omnipresent in our digital lives that it now seems impossible for anyone to avoid. It doesn’t take much imagination to conjure the powers such always-on surveillance can provide an authoritarian regime like China’s. Within America’s own representative democracy, citizens would surely rise up in outrage if the government attempted to mandate that every person above the age of 12 carry a tracking device that revealed their location 24 hours a day. Yet, in the decade since Apple’s App Store was created, Americans have, app by app, consented to just such a system run by private companies. Now, as the decade ends, tens of millions of Americans, including many children, find themselves carrying spies in their pockets during the day and leaving them beside their beds at night — even though the corporations that control their data are far less accountable than the government would be. Source Here
The IoT should be renamed to IoTT (Internet of Tracking Things), shouldn't it. But we can't have people figure out what's really happening, can we? It's a good thing that quantum computing isn't too close, isn’t it?
April 5, 2018: Global News • (Project Maven) Over 3,000 Google employees have a signed a petition in protest against the company’s involvement with a U.S. Department of Defense artificial intelligence (AI) project that studies imagery and could eventually be used to improve drone strikes in the battlefield. Source Here
December 12, 2019 • Palantir took over Project Maven defense contract after Google backed out. Source Here
December 29, 2020: Input • Palantir exec says its work is on par with the Manhattan Project. Comparing AI to most lethal weapon in human history isn’t comforting. SourceHere
August 14, 2020: Venture: • Google researchers use quantum computing to help improve image classification. Source Here
Hmmm. Maybe Apple will be for the little guy? They have always valued privacy rights, right?
October 2, 2013: Vice News • The hacktivist group Anonymous released a video statement with an accompanying Pastebin document claiming that there are definitive links between AuthenTec, the company that developed the iPhone 5S’s fingerprint scanner, and the US government. Source Here
An apple a day helps the NSA. Or Google. Or Microsoft. Or Amazon. Take your pick from the basket, because dem Apple's are all the same. But at least we have fundamental rights, right?
Foreign agent declaration not required • No mention of foreign agent status is made in the Protect America Act of 2007. Under prior FISA rules, persons targeted for surveillance must have been declared as foreign agents before a FISA warrant would be accorded by the FISC court.
'Quasi-anti-terrorism law' for all-forms of intelligence collection • Vastly marketed by U.S. federal and military agencies as a law to prevent terror attacks, the Protect America Act was actually a law focused on the 'acquisition' of desired intelligence information, of unspecified nature. The sole requirement is geolocation outside the United States at time of Directive invocation; pursuant to Authorization or Order invocation, surveillance Directives can be undertaken towards persons targeted for intelligence information gathering. Implementation of Directives can take place inside the United States or outside the United States. No criminal or terrorism investigation of the person need be in play at time of the Directive. All that need be required is that the target be related to an official desire for intelligence information gathering for actions on part of persons involved in surveillance to be granted full immunity from U.S. criminal or civil procedures, under Section 105B(l) of the Act.
Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required • But the most striking aspect of the Protect America Act was the notation that any information gathering did not comprise electronic surveillance. This wording had the effect of removing FISA-related strictures from Protect America Act 2007-related Directives, serving to remove a number of protections for persons targeted, and requirements for persons working for U.S. intelligence agencies.
The acquisition does not constitute electronic surveillance • The removal of the term electronic surveillance from any Protect America Act Directive implied that the FISC court approval was no longer required, as FISA warrants were no longer required. In the place of a warrant was a certification, made by U.S. intelligence officers, which was copied to the Court. In effect, the FISC became less of a court than a registry of pre-approved certifications.Certifications (in place of FISA warrants) were able to be levied ex post facto, in writing to the Court no more than 72 hours after it was made. The Attorney General was to transmit as soon as possible to the Court a sealed copy of the certification that would remain sealed unless the certification was needed to determine the legality of the acquisition.Source Here
Oh. FISA is basically a rubber stamp. And even if it the stage play wasn't pretending to follow the script, would it matter? Who could actually stop it at this point? The cat's out of the bag and Pandoras Box is open.
Controversial debates arose as the Protect America Act was published. Constitutional lawyers and civil liberties experts expressed concerns that this Act authorized massive, wide-ranging information gathering with no oversight. Whereas it placed much focus on communications, the Act allowed for information gathering of all shapes and forms. The ACLU called it the "Police America Act" – "authorized a massive surveillance dragnet", calling the blank-check oversight provisions "meaningless," and calling them a "phony court review of secret procedures."
So the surveillance state doesn't have checks and balances anymore. The state is preparing for Massive Civil Breakdown. They keep warning us about environmental collapse. Got it? Good. Let's keep on keeping on.
The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 created a single new district corporation governing the entire federal territory, called the District of Columbia, thus dissolving the three major political subdivisions of the District (Port of Georgetown, the City of Washington, and Washington County) and their governments. Source Here)
The first big leap in corporate personhood from holding mere property and contract rights to possessing more expansive rights was a claim that the Equal Protection Clause applied to corporations. One of the strangest twists in American constitutional law was the moment that corporations gained personhood under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. It occurred in a case called Santa Clara County, and what was odd was that the Supreme Court did not really even decide the matter in the actual opinion. It only appeared in a footnote to the case. What we are likely to have at the conclusion of the Supreme Court term is corporations that are empowered to spend in American elections because of Bellotti and Citizens United; corporations that can make religious objections thanks to Hobby Lobby; and if Jesner turns out as badly as I predict, corporations will be able to aid and abet human rights violations abroad with impunity. Source Here
"Having a corporation would allow people to put property into a collective ownership that could be held with perpetual existence," she says. "So it wouldn't be tied to any one person's lifespan, or subject necessarily to laws regarding inheriting property." Later on, in the United States and elsewhere, the advantages of incorporation were essential to efficient and secure economic development. Unlike partnerships, the corporation continued to exist even if a partner died; there was no unanimity required to do something; shareholders could not be sued individually, only the corporation as a whole, so investors only risked as much as they put into buying shares. Source Here
The way that the Arab Bank may get away with this alleged morally troubling behavior, even though it has a New York branch, is by reasserting the basic argument that was made in Nestle USA and Kiobel II: that the federal Alien Tort Statute was not intended to apply to corporations full stop. Given other cases in this area like Mohamad v. PLO, which held the word “individual” in the Torture Victim Protection Act means a natural person and does not impose any liability against organizations, the Arab Bank’s procorporate argument may well prevail. There are multiple federal Circuit Courts which have shot down the argument that corporations are immune from suit under the Alien Tort Statute. The lone outlier is the Second Circuit, which decided in 2010 that corporations are excused from suit in Kiobel I. This is the case that was appealed to the Supreme Court and became Kiobel II. Jesner v. Arab Bank was litigated in the Second Circuit. One question in Jesner was what exactly did Kiobel II do to Kiobel I. So far in the litigation, Jesner concluded that Kiobel I and its conclusion that corporations can’t be sued in federal court using the Alien Tort Statute remained the controlling law of the Second Circuit.
There's a reason people call lawyers snakes, it's because most of them speak with forked tounges. So the corporation isn't being held liable, but the shareholders can't be held liable either. That's too insane to even be called a Catch 22. We are literally being set up to have no recourse because there isn’t anybody who can be held responsible. Why is that important when I've been talking about the surveillance state?
July 14, 2020: The Intercept • Microsoft’s police surveillance services are often opaque because the company sells little in the way of its own policing products. It instead offers an array of “general purpose” Azure cloud services, such as machine learning and predictive analytics tools like Power BI (business intelligence) and Cognitive Services, which can be used by law enforcement agencies and surveillance vendors to build their own software or solutions. A rich array of Microsoft’s cloud-based offerings is on full display with a concept called “The Connected Officer.” Microsoft situates this concept as part of the Internet of Things, or IoT, in which gadgets are connected to online servers and thus made more useful. “The Connected Officer,” Microsoft has written, will “bring IoT to policing.” With the Internet of Things, physical objects are assigned unique identifiers and transfer data over networks in an automated fashion. If a police officer draws a gun from its holster, for example, a notification can be sent over the network to alert other officers there may be danger. Real Time Crime Centers could then locate the officer on a map and monitor the situation from a command and control center. Source Here
Uhm, I guess it's really is all connected, isn’t it?
June 18, 2020: The Guardian • How Target, Google, Bank of America and Microsoft quietly fund police through private donations. More than 25 large corporations in the past three years have contributed funding to private police foundations, new report says. Source Here
Long live the Military Industrial Techno Surveillance State. If you have nothing to hide, than you have nothing to worry about. Really? Are we still believing that line? Cause it's a load of crap. If we have nothing to worry about, then why are they worried enough to be implementing surveillance systems with corresponding units on the ground? Got your attention there, didn't I?
August 19, 2019: Big Think • Though the term "Orwellian" easily applies to such a technology, Michel's illuminating reporting touches something deeper. Numerous American cities have already been surveilled using these god-like cameras, including Gorgon Stare, a camera-enabled drone that can track individuals over a 50-square kilometer radius from 20,000 feet. Here's the real rub: the feature that allows users to pinch and zoom on Instagram is similar to what WAMI allows. Anything within those 50-square kilometers is now under the microscope. If this sounds like some futuristic tech, think again: Derivations of this camera system have been tested in numerous American cities. Say there is a big public protest. With this camera you can follow thousands of protesters back to their homes. Now you have a list of the home addresses of all the people involved in a political movement. If on their way home you witness them committing some crime—breaking a traffic regulation or frequenting a location that is known to be involved in the drug trade—you can use that surveillance data against them to essentially shut them up. That's why we have laws that prevent the use of surveillance technologies because it is human instinct to abuse them. That's why we need controls. Source Here
Want to know more about the Gorgon Stare? Flatten the Curve. Part 12. Source Here
Now, I'm not sure if you remember or know any Greek Mythology, but the Gorgons were three sisters, and one sister had Snakes on her head (she wasn't a lawyer) and she turned people to stone when she looked at them.
MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) is a directed-energy non-lethal weapon designed by WaveBand Corporation in 2003-2004 for temporary personnel incapacitation. The weapon is based on the microwave auditory effect resulting in a strong sound sensation in the human head when it is subject to certain kinds of pulsed/modulated microwave radiation. The developers claimed that through the combination of pulse parameters and pulse power, it is possible to raise the auditory sensation to a “discomfort” level, deterring personnel from entering a protected perimeter or, if necessary, temporarily incapacitating particular individuals. In 2005, Sierra Nevada Corporation acquired WaveBand Corporation.
Ok. Get it? The Gorgon eye in the sky stares at you while the Medusa makes you immobile. Not good, but at least it'll just freeze you in your tracks.
July 6, 2008: Gizmodo • The Sierra Nevada Corporation claimed this week that it is ready to begin production on the MEDUSA, a damned scary ray gun that uses the "microwave audio effect" to implant sounds and perhaps even specific messages inside people's heads. Short for Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio, MEDUSA creates the audio effect with short microwave pulses. The pulses create a shockwave inside the skull that's detected by the ears, and basically makes you think you're going balls-to-the-wall batshit insane. Source Here
Uhm. And drive you insane.
July 26, 2008: Gizmodo • The MEDUSA crowd control ray gun we reported on earlier this month sounded like some pretty amazing-and downright scary-technology. Using the microwave auditory effect, the beam, in theory, would have put sounds and voice-like noises in your head, thereby driving you away from the area. Crowd control via voices in your head. Sounds cool. However, it turns out that the beam would actually kill you before any of that happy stuff started taking place, most likely by frying or cooking your brain inside your skull. Can you imagine if this thing made it out into the field? Awkward! Source Here
Annnnnnnndddddd it'll kill you.
Guys, they're prepared. They've been prepared. They're ready. Remember the Doomsday Bunkers? The military moving into Cheyenne Mountain? Deep Underground Military Bunkers? The rapid rolling out of 5G? BITCOIN and UBI so neatly inserted into our minds over the last five years? They've directly told us to have three months of supplies in our homes. 2020 isn't going to be an anomaly? It's the start of the collapse of our natural resources. Take a look on Reddit and all the posts about crazy weather. Cyanobacteria blooms killing dogs and people. Toxic Super Pollution caused by atmospheric inversions killing people. This isn’t normal, this is New Normal. And they know it. They've known it for a while. Let me show you one last thing before I wrap it up.
From the earliest Chinese dynasties to the present, the jade deposits most used were not only those of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang but other parts of China as well, such as Lantian, Shaanxi.
Remember, words matter. Look at Gorgon Stare and Medusa. They don't randomly grab names out of a hat, or pick them because they think it sounds dystopian. They pick words for a reason.
July 7, 2017: The Warzone • There only appears to be one official news story on this exercise at all and it's available on the website of Air Mobility Command’s Eighteenth Air Force, situated at Joint Base Charleston. At the time of writing, a google shows that there were more than a half dozen more copies on other Air Force pages, as well as number of photographs. For some reason, someone appears to have taken these offline or otherwise broken all the links. Using Google to search the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, which is the main U.S. military's public affairs hub, brings up more broken links. Oh, and unless there's been some sort of mistake, JADE HELM actually stands for the amazingly obtuse Joint Assistance for Deployment Execution Homeland Eradication of Local Militants. A separate web search for this phrase does not turn up any other results. Source Here
Now, using an acronym that indicates training to Eradicate Local Militants seems pretty dumb. It may be used in that manner if environmental collapse triggers riots, but i don't think they would warn everyone ahead of time, do you? So I dug a little bit more.
Joint Assistant for Development and Execution (JADE) is a U.S. military system used for planning the deployment of military forces in crisis situations. The U.S. military developed this automated planning software system in order to expedite the creation of the detailed planning needed to deploy military forces for a military operation. JADE uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology combining user input, a knowledge base of stored plans, and suggestions by the system to provide the ability to develop large-scale and complex plans in minimal time. JADE is a knowledge-based system that uses highly structured information that takes advantage of data hierarchies. An official 2016 document approved for public release titled Human Systems Roadmap Review describes plans to create autonomous weapon systems that analyze social media and make decisions, including the use of lethal force, with minimal human involvement. This type of system is referred to as a Lethal Autonomous Weapon System (LAWS). The name "JADE" comes from the jade green color seen on the island of Oahu in Hawaii where the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) is headquartered.
PACOM? Why isn't that command group responsible for the South China Sea?
Formerly known as United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) since its inception, the command was renamed to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018, in recognition of the greater emphasis on South Asia, especially India.
Now doesn't it look like Jade Helm is preparing for an invasion? And possibly insurrection later. Or at the same time? Or riots over WW3? Or food riots? And start thinking about why the laws are starting to exclude corporations? Then think about the mercenaries that are being contracted out by the government.
October 17, 2018: The Carolinan • In 2016, 75 percent of American forces were private contractors. In 2017, Erik Prince, former head of Blackwater, and Stephen Feinberg, head of Dyncorp, discussed plans for contractors completely taking over U.S. operations in Afghanistan. Although ultimately unsuccessful, it remains to be seen if the current administration will change its mind. Contractors are involved in almost every military task, such as intelligence analysis, logistics and training allied soldiers. Contractors are even involved in U.S. special ops missions. This is because contractors are essentially untraceable and unaccountable. Most are born in other countries; only 33 percent are registered U.S. citizens. Private military firms don’t have to report their actions to Congress, unlike the military or intelligence agencies. They also aren’t subject to the Freedom of Information Act, so private citizens and journalists aren’t allowed to access their internal documents. There are also no international laws to regulate private military firms. It’s been proven that many contractors are involved in illegal activities. The larger multinational companies sometimes hire local subcontractors. These contractors sometimes aren’t background-checked. A 2010 investigation by the Senate found that many subcontractors were linked to murders, kidnappings, bribery and anti-coalition activities. Some subcontractors even formed their own unlicensed mercenary groups after coalition forces leave. A 2010 House investigation showed evidence that the Department of Defense had hired local warlords for security services. In 2007, Blackwater contractors massacred 17 civilians. This eventually led Blackwater to being restructured and renamed as Academi. Source Here
Military Exercises. Private Defense Firms. No oversight. And it's all coming soon. Read more at Flatten the Curve. Part 20. Upcoming war and catastrophes. Source Here
Nah. I'm just fear mongering and Doomscrolling again.
Heads up and eyes open. Talk soon.
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$SPCB SuperCom main roundup

$SPCB SuperCom Ltd.
(Global Leader in Digital Solutions For COVID-19)

SuperCom mobilizes resources and teams in attempts to support URGENT requests from governments to help restrict spread of the (COVID-19).

Website: https://www.supercom.com/
Investor Presentation: (April 2020) https://10ef9e22-6465-4bd7-81b7-f9633d85dc0a.filesusr.com/ugd/78f816_d8b3af45b72241ed90228f2f29301ca9.pdf
Background: Global secure solutions integrator and technology provider for governments and other consumers facing organizations around the world. Over 26 years of experience and a track record of successful end-to-end deployments in over 30 countries and 5 continents.
119 patents issued
1000+ customers in 30 countries
115 employees
Stock Structure:
10.91 Million Shares Float
16.29 Million Shares Outstanding
28.14% Insider Ownership
3.33% Institutional Ownership
52W Range 0.25-3.09
Products:
1) VeloPOS- is the only OPEN universal platform player, covering entire payments ecosystems- We deliver our technology across iOS, Android and Windows operating systems integrated with the worlds’ leading Point of Sale application providers (referred to as ISV’s)
2) MIV1- MIV1 is a mobile ID verification solution designed by SuperCom experts to directly address the needs of SuperCom customers. MIV1 provides the fastest and most reliable verification method for person identification using live fingerprint, face and ID card verification.
3) PureSecurity™ - Pure plus Services, SuperCom's solutions are built on decades of experience implementing RFID solutions and large-scale government projects. The EM platform allows for easy, gradual and flexible implementation, meeting the challenges of any agency or private operator.
4)PureLock- SuperCom offers a complete tracking and monitoring solution for cargo containers via a secure and reliable locking mechanism. The PureLock system monitors all activity and provides real-time alerts when the lock has been breached.
5) PureCare (Covid Related)- SuperCom's PureCare is a state-of-the-art solution for quarantine and isolation monitoring to aid government efforts in containing and limiting the reach of infectious diseases. It works within existing healthcare containment models for control and surveillance of patients.
Current Industries:
NEW YORK, July 15, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom (NASDAQ: SPCB), a global provider of secure solutions for the e-Government, Public Safety, HealthCare, and Finance sectors, announces the closing of the PRIVATE placement financing previously announced on July 8, 2020 raising gross proceeds of $3.2 million.
TEL AVIV, Israel, March 19, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom Ltd. (NASDAQ: SPCB), a global provider of Multi-Identity, IoT, Connectivity, and Cyber Security solutions for the global Public and Private Sectors, today announced that its CEO, Mr. Arie Trabelsi, has notified the Company that he has increased his purchase program to purchase up to 6 Million of the company's ordinary shares on the open market.
"I believe the SPCB current stock price levels do not reflect the high intrinsic value of the company. This program provides me the ability to opportunistically acquire SuperCom shares and underscores my ongoing belief in the Company," commented Mr. Arie Trabelsi, President and CEO of SuperCom.
TEL AVIV, Israel, June 4, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom (NASDAQ: SPCB), a global provider of secure solutions for the e-government, public safety, healthcare, and finance sectors, announced today it was awarded a new 5-year contract with the national government of Latvia to deploy its enhanced PureSecurity Electronic Monitoring (EM) Suite, including both RF House Arrest and GPS tracking.
NEW YORK, April 27, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom Ltd. (NASDAQ: SPCB) ("SuperCom"), a global provider of secure solutions for the e-Government, Public Safety, HealthCare, and Finance sectors, announced today that it has begun electronic monitoring of prisoners released from a United States of America correctional facility due to COVID-19. This facility and various others in the U.S. have requested assistance in managing prisoner releases as part of their COVID-19 mitigation strategy. LCA, a SuperCom subsidiary, will provide full case management and electronic monitoring services for these releases during the release period.
SuperCom mobilizes resources and teams in attempts to support URGENT requests from governments to help restrict spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19)
NEW YORK, March 30, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom (NASDAQ: SPCB) Announced today that it has shipped equipment designated for an urgent Pilot of its Coronavirus (COVID-19) citizen quarantine compliance technology. The equipment is comprised of products in SuperCom's PureHealth technology suite to include the PureCare smartphone and PureTag ankle bracelet. In addition, the suite offers a web-based SAAS command and control center to monitor and manage quarantine compliance. The pilot will run in two operational modes: smartphone only for low-risk cases on a larger scale, and smartphone with ankle-bracelet for more sensitive cases.
Financials: Next financial report for 14 August 2020 (Estimated)
Catalysts:
NEW YORK, March 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- SuperCom (NASDAQ: SPCB), a global provider of secure solutions for the e-Government, Public Safety, HealthCare, and Finance sectors announced today that it plans to leverage its proven, robust and scalable people tracking technology to aid in fighting the spread of the the coronavirus (COVID-19). Supercom is offering a new solution for quarantine and isolation monitoring to assist governments as they strive to contain and limit the reach of infectious diseases such as the coronavirus. This solution, PureHealth, leverages the company's proprietary PureSecurity technology, which has been successfully deployed for tracking and monitoring of thousands of people with mandatory location restrictions across the world in countries such as the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Estonia, China, Latvia, and more.
Risk:
Sources:
Summary: SuperCom is a global company at the forefront of technological advances in regards to Covid and voting for elections. SuperCom deals its products across the world in countries such as the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Estonia, China, Latvia, and more. What is eye opening about this opportunity is the recent government contracts (2), and its new project with a California Central Valley county to provide employment and anger management services, valued at up to $3.8 million. The project delivers services to adults with a focus on workforce services, employment readiness, and anger management to reduce recidivism. Keep in mind this company also has a tie in with elections, and an earnings report coming up that should include all the recent government contracts. The cybersecurity element is huge in an environment where it’s needed more now than ever. With a combination of good PR, a low market cap and excellent contracts in an environment where it will succeed most, this ticker is highly recommended before earnings. They also have a payment system which is set up for bitcoin transactions, something to look into with a bitcoin boom going on.
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All you need to know about Yield Farming - The rocket fuel for Defi

All you need to know about Yield Farming - The rocket fuel for Defi
Source
It’s effectively July 2017 in the world of decentralized finance (DeFi), and as in the heady days of the initial coin offering (ICO) boom, the numbers are only trending up.
According to DeFi Pulse, there is $1.9 billion in crypto assets locked in DeFi right now. According to the CoinDesk ICO Tracker, the ICO market started chugging past $1 billion in July 2017, just a few months before token sales started getting talked about on TV.
Debate juxtaposing these numbers if you like, but what no one can question is this: Crypto users are putting more and more value to work in DeFi applications, driven largely by the introduction of a whole new yield-generating pasture, Compound’s COMP governance token.
Governance tokens enable users to vote on the future of decentralized protocols, sure, but they also present fresh ways for DeFi founders to entice assets onto their platforms.
That said, it’s the crypto liquidity providers who are the stars of the present moment. They even have a meme-worthy name: yield farmers.

https://preview.redd.it/lxsvazp1g9l51.png?width=775&format=png&auto=webp&s=a36173ab679c701a5d5e0aac806c00fcc84d78c1

Where it started

Ethereum-based credit market Compound started distributing its governance token, COMP, to the protocol’s users this past June 15. Demand for the token (heightened by the way its automatic distribution was structured) kicked off the present craze and moved Compound into the leading position in DeFi.
The hot new term in crypto is “yield farming,” a shorthand for clever strategies where putting crypto temporarily at the disposal of some startup’s application earns its owner more cryptocurrency.
Another term floating about is “liquidity mining.”
The buzz around these concepts has evolved into a low rumble as more and more people get interested.
The casual crypto observer who only pops into the market when activity heats up might be starting to get faint vibes that something is happening right now. Take our word for it: Yield farming is the source of those vibes.
But if all these terms (“DeFi,” “liquidity mining,” “yield farming”) are so much Greek to you, fear not. We’re here to catch you up. We’ll get into all of them.
We’re going to go from very basic to more advanced, so feel free to skip ahead.

What are tokens?

Most CoinDesk readers probably know this, but just in case: Tokens are like the money video-game players earn while fighting monsters, money they can use to buy gear or weapons in the universe of their favorite game.
But with blockchains, tokens aren’t limited to only one massively multiplayer online money game. They can be earned in one and used in lots of others. They usually represent either ownership in something (like a piece of a Uniswap liquidity pool, which we will get into later) or access to some service. For example, in the Brave browser, ads can only be bought using basic attention token (BAT).
If tokens are worth money, then you can bank with them or at least do things that look very much like banking. Thus: decentralized finance.
Tokens proved to be the big use case for Ethereum, the second-biggest blockchain in the world. The term of art here is “ERC-20 tokens,” which refers to a software standard that allows token creators to write rules for them. Tokens can be used a few ways. Often, they are used as a form of money within a set of applications. So the idea for Kin was to create a token that web users could spend with each other at such tiny amounts that it would almost feel like they weren’t spending anything; that is, money for the internet.
Governance tokens are different. They are not like a token at a video-game arcade, as so many tokens were described in the past. They work more like certificates to serve in an ever-changing legislature in that they give holders the right to vote on changes to a protocol.
So on the platform that proved DeFi could fly, MakerDAO, holders of its governance token, MKR, vote almost every week on small changes to parameters that govern how much it costs to borrow and how much savers earn, and so on.
Read more: Why DeFi’s Billion-Dollar Milestone Matters
One thing all crypto tokens have in common, though, is they are tradable and they have a price. So, if tokens are worth money, then you can bank with them or at least do things that look very much like banking. Thus: decentralized finance.

What is DeFi?

Fair question. For folks who tuned out for a bit in 2018, we used to call this “open finance.” That construction seems to have faded, though, and “DeFi” is the new lingo.
In case that doesn’t jog your memory, DeFi is all the things that let you play with money, and the only identification you need is a crypto wallet.
On the normal web, you can’t buy a blender without giving the site owner enough data to learn your whole life history. In DeFi, you can borrow money without anyone even asking for your name.
I can explain this but nothing really brings it home like trying one of these applications. If you have an Ethereum wallet that has even $20 worth of crypto in it, go do something on one of these products. Pop over to Uniswap and buy yourself some FUN (a token for gambling apps) or WBTC (wrapped bitcoin). Go to MakerDAO and create $5 worth of DAI (a stablecoin that tends to be worth $1) out of the digital ether. Go to Compound and borrow $10 in USDC.
(Notice the very small amounts I’m suggesting. The old crypto saying “don’t put in more than you can afford to lose” goes double for DeFi. This stuff is uber-complex and a lot can go wrong. These may be “savings” products but they’re not for your retirement savings.)
Immature and experimental though it may be, the technology’s implications are staggering. On the normal web, you can’t buy a blender without giving the site owner enough data to learn your whole life history. In DeFi, you can borrow money without anyone even asking for your name.
DeFi applications don’t worry about trusting you because they have the collateral you put up to back your debt (on Compound, for instance, a $10 debt will require around $20 in collateral).
Read more: There Are More DAI on Compound Now Than There Are DAI in the World
If you do take this advice and try something, note that you can swap all these things back as soon as you’ve taken them out. Open the loan and close it 10 minutes later. It’s fine. Fair warning: It might cost you a tiny bit in fees, and the cost of using Ethereum itself right now is much higher than usual, in part due to this fresh new activity. But it’s nothing that should ruin a crypto user.
So what’s the point of borrowing for people who already have the money? Most people do it for some kind of trade. The most obvious example, to short a token (the act of profiting if its price falls). It’s also good for someone who wants to hold onto a token but still play the market.

Doesn’t running a bank take a lot of money up front?

It does, and in DeFi that money is largely provided by strangers on the internet. That’s why the startups behind these decentralized banking applications come up with clever ways to attract HODLers with idle assets.
Liquidity is the chief concern of all these different products. That is: How much money do they have locked in their smart contracts?
“In some types of products, the product experience gets much better if you have liquidity. Instead of borrowing from VCs or debt investors, you borrow from your users,” said Electric Capital managing partner Avichal Garg.
Let’s take Uniswap as an example. Uniswap is an “automated market maker,” or AMM (another DeFi term of art). This means Uniswap is a robot on the internet that is always willing to buy and it’s also always willing to sell any cryptocurrency for which it has a market.
On Uniswap, there is at least one market pair for almost any token on Ethereum. Behind the scenes, this means Uniswap can make it look like it is making a direct trade for any two tokens, which makes it easy for users, but it’s all built around pools of two tokens. And all these market pairs work better with bigger pools.

Why do I keep hearing about ‘pools’?

To illustrate why more money helps, let’s break down how Uniswap works.
Let’s say there was a market for USDC and DAI. These are two tokens (both stablecoins but with different mechanisms for retaining their value) that are meant to be worth $1 each all the time, and that generally tends to be true for both.
The price Uniswap shows for each token in any pooled market pair is based on the balance of each in the pool. So, simplifying this a lot for illustration’s sake, if someone were to set up a USDC/DAI pool, they should deposit equal amounts of both. In a pool with only 2 USDC and 2 DAI it would offer a price of 1 USDC for 1 DAI. But then imagine that someone put in 1 DAI and took out 1 USDC. Then the pool would have 1 USDC and 3 DAI. The pool would be very out of whack. A savvy investor could make an easy $0.50 profit by putting in 1 USDC and receiving 1.5 DAI. That’s a 50% arbitrage profit, and that’s the problem with limited liquidity.
(Incidentally, this is why Uniswap’s prices tend to be accurate, because traders watch it for small discrepancies from the wider market and trade them away for arbitrage profits very quickly.)
Read more: Uniswap V2 Launches With More Token-Swap Pairs, Oracle Service, Flash Loans
However, if there were 500,000 USDC and 500,000 DAI in the pool, a trade of 1 DAI for 1 USDC would have a negligible impact on the relative price. That’s why liquidity is helpful.
You can stick your assets on Compound and earn a little yield. But that’s not very creative. Users who look for angles to maximize that yield: those are the yield farmers.
Similar effects hold across DeFi, so markets want more liquidity. Uniswap solves this by charging a tiny fee on every trade. It does this by shaving off a little bit from each trade and leaving that in the pool (so one DAI would actually trade for 0.997 USDC, after the fee, growing the overall pool by 0.003 USDC). This benefits liquidity providers because when someone puts liquidity in the pool they own a share of the pool. If there has been lots of trading in that pool, it has earned a lot of fees, and the value of each share will grow.
And this brings us back to tokens.
Liquidity added to Uniswap is represented by a token, not an account. So there’s no ledger saying, “Bob owns 0.000000678% of the DAI/USDC pool.” Bob just has a token in his wallet. And Bob doesn’t have to keep that token. He could sell it. Or use it in another product. We’ll circle back to this, but it helps to explain why people like to talk about DeFi products as “money Legos.”

So how much money do people make by putting money into these products?

It can be a lot more lucrative than putting money in a traditional bank, and that’s before startups started handing out governance tokens.
Compound is the current darling of this space, so let’s use it as an illustration. As of this writing, a person can put USDC into Compound and earn 2.72% on it. They can put tether (USDT) into it and earn 2.11%. Most U.S. bank accounts earn less than 0.1% these days, which is close enough to nothing.
However, there are some caveats. First, there’s a reason the interest rates are so much juicier: DeFi is a far riskier place to park your money. There’s no Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) protecting these funds. If there were a run on Compound, users could find themselves unable to withdraw their funds when they wanted.
Plus, the interest is quite variable. You don’t know what you’ll earn over the course of a year. USDC’s rate is high right now. It was low last week. Usually, it hovers somewhere in the 1% range.
Similarly, a user might get tempted by assets with more lucrative yields like USDT, which typically has a much higher interest rate than USDC. (Monday morning, the reverse was true, for unclear reasons; this is crypto, remember.) The trade-off here is USDT’s transparency about the real-world dollars it’s supposed to hold in a real-world bank is not nearly up to par with USDC’s. A difference in interest rates is often the market’s way of telling you the one instrument is viewed as dicier than another.
Users making big bets on these products turn to companies Opyn and Nexus Mutual to insure their positions because there’s no government protections in this nascent space – more on the ample risks later on.
So users can stick their assets in Compound or Uniswap and earn a little yield. But that’s not very creative. Users who look for angles to maximize that yield: those are the yield farmers.

OK, I already knew all of that. What is yield farming?

Broadly, yield farming is any effort to put crypto assets to work and generate the most returns possible on those assets.
At the simplest level, a yield farmer might move assets around within Compound, constantly chasing whichever pool is offering the best APY from week to week. This might mean moving into riskier pools from time to time, but a yield farmer can handle risk.
“Farming opens up new price arbs [arbitrage] that can spill over to other protocols whose tokens are in the pool,” said Maya Zehavi, a blockchain consultant.
Because these positions are tokenized, though, they can go further.
This was a brand-new kind of yield on a deposit. In fact, it was a way to earn a yield on a loan. Who has ever heard of a borrower earning a return on a debt from their lender?
In a simple example, a yield farmer might put 100,000 USDT into Compound. They will get a token back for that stake, called cUSDT. Let’s say they get 100,000 cUSDT back (the formula on Compound is crazy so it’s not 1:1 like that but it doesn’t matter for our purposes here).
They can then take that cUSDT and put it into a liquidity pool that takes cUSDT on Balancer, an AMM that allows users to set up self-rebalancing crypto index funds. In normal times, this could earn a small amount more in transaction fees. This is the basic idea of yield farming. The user looks for edge cases in the system to eke out as much yield as they can across as many products as it will work on.
Right now, however, things are not normal, and they probably won’t be for a while.

Why is yield farming so hot right now?

Because of liquidity mining. Liquidity mining supercharges yield farming.
Liquidity mining is when a yield farmer gets a new token as well as the usual return (that’s the “mining” part) in exchange for the farmer’s liquidity.
“The idea is that stimulating usage of the platform increases the value of the token, thereby creating a positive usage loop to attract users,” said Richard Ma of smart-contract auditor Quantstamp.
The yield farming examples above are only farming yield off the normal operations of different platforms. Supply liquidity to Compound or Uniswap and get a little cut of the business that runs over the protocols – very vanilla.
But Compound announced earlier this year it wanted to truly decentralize the product and it wanted to give a good amount of ownership to the people who made it popular by using it. That ownership would take the form of the COMP token.
Lest this sound too altruistic, keep in mind that the people who created it (the team and the investors) owned more than half of the equity. By giving away a healthy proportion to users, that was very likely to make it a much more popular place for lending. In turn, that would make everyone’s stake worth much more.
So, Compound announced this four-year period where the protocol would give out COMP tokens to users, a fixed amount every day until it was gone. These COMP tokens control the protocol, just as shareholders ultimately control publicly traded companies.
Every day, the Compound protocol looks at everyone who had lent money to the application and who had borrowed from it and gives them COMP proportional to their share of the day’s total business.
The results were very surprising, even to Compound’s biggest promoters.
COMP’s value will likely go down, and that’s why some investors are rushing to earn as much of it as they can right now.
This was a brand-new kind of yield on a deposit into Compound. In fact, it was a way to earn a yield on a loan, as well, which is very weird: Who has ever heard of a borrower earning a return on a debt from their lender?
COMP’s value has consistently been well over $200 since it started distributing on June 15. We did the math elsewhere but long story short: investors with fairly deep pockets can make a strong gain maximizing their daily returns in COMP. It is, in a way, free money.
It’s possible to lend to Compound, borrow from it, deposit what you borrowed and so on. This can be done multiple times and DeFi startup Instadapp even built a tool to make it as capital-efficient as possible.
“Yield farmers are extremely creative. They find ways to ‘stack’ yields and even earn multiple governance tokens at once,” said Spencer Noon of DTC Capital.
COMP’s value spike is a temporary situation. The COMP distribution will only last four years and then there won’t be any more. Further, most people agree that the high price now is driven by the low float (that is, how much COMP is actually free to trade on the market – it will never be this low again). So the value will probably gradually go down, and that’s why savvy investors are trying to earn as much as they can now.
Appealing to the speculative instincts of diehard crypto traders has proven to be a great way to increase liquidity on Compound. This fattens some pockets but also improves the user experience for all kinds of Compound users, including those who would use it whether they were going to earn COMP or not.
As usual in crypto, when entrepreneurs see something successful, they imitate it. Balancer was the next protocol to start distributing a governance token, BAL, to liquidity providers. Flash loan provider bZx has announced a plan. Ren, Curve and Synthetix also teamed up to promote a liquidity pool on Curve.
It is a fair bet many of the more well-known DeFi projects will announce some kind of coin that can be mined by providing liquidity.
The case to watch here is Uniswap versus Balancer. Balancer can do the same thing Uniswap does, but most users who want to do a quick token trade through their wallet use Uniswap. It will be interesting to see if Balancer’s BAL token convinces Uniswap’s liquidity providers to defect.
So far, though, more liquidity has gone into Uniswap since the BAL announcement, according to its data site. That said, even more has gone into Balancer.

Did liquidity mining start with COMP?

No, but it was the most-used protocol with the most carefully designed liquidity mining scheme.
This point is debated but the origins of liquidity mining probably date back to Fcoin, a Chinese exchange that created a token in 2018 that rewarded people for making trades. You won’t believe what happened next! Just kidding, you will: People just started running bots to do pointless trades with themselves to earn the token.
Similarly, EOS is a blockchain where transactions are basically free, but since nothing is really free the absence of friction was an invitation for spam. Some malicious hacker who didn’t like EOS created a token called EIDOS on the network in late 2019. It rewarded people for tons of pointless transactions and somehow got an exchange listing.
These initiatives illustrated how quickly crypto users respond to incentives.
Read more: Compound Changes COMP Distribution Rules Following ‘Yield Farming’ Frenzy
Fcoin aside, liquidity mining as we now know it first showed up on Ethereum when the marketplace for synthetic tokens, Synthetix, announced in July 2019 an award in its SNX token for users who helped add liquidity to the sETH/ETH pool on Uniswap. By October, that was one of Uniswap’s biggest pools.
When Compound Labs, the company that launched the Compound protocol, decided to create COMP, the governance token, the firm took months designing just what kind of behavior it wanted and how to incentivize it. Even still, Compound Labs was surprised by the response. It led to unintended consequences such as crowding into a previously unpopular market (lending and borrowing BAT) in order to mine as much COMP as possible.
Just last week, 115 different COMP wallet addresses – senators in Compound’s ever-changing legislature – voted to change the distribution mechanism in hopes of spreading liquidity out across the markets again.

Is there DeFi for bitcoin?

Yes, on Ethereum.
Nothing has beaten bitcoin over time for returns, but there’s one thing bitcoin can’t do on its own: create more bitcoin.
A smart trader can get in and out of bitcoin and dollars in a way that will earn them more bitcoin, but this is tedious and risky. It takes a certain kind of person.
DeFi, however, offers ways to grow one’s bitcoin holdings – though somewhat indirectly.
A long HODLer is happy to gain fresh BTC off their counterparty’s short-term win. That’s the game.
For example, a user can create a simulated bitcoin on Ethereum using BitGo’s WBTC system. They put BTC in and get the same amount back out in freshly minted WBTC. WBTC can be traded back for BTC at any time, so it tends to be worth the same as BTC.
Then the user can take that WBTC, stake it on Compound and earn a few percent each year in yield on their BTC. Odds are, the people who borrow that WBTC are probably doing it to short BTC (that is, they will sell it immediately, buy it back when the price goes down, close the loan and keep the difference).
A long HODLer is happy to gain fresh BTC off their counterparty’s short-term win. That’s the game.

How risky is it?

Enough.
“DeFi, with the combination of an assortment of digital funds, automation of key processes, and more complex incentive structures that work across protocols – each with their own rapidly changing tech and governance practices – make for new types of security risks,” said Liz Steininger of Least Authority, a crypto security auditor. “Yet, despite these risks, the high yields are undeniably attractive to draw more users.”
We’ve seen big failures in DeFi products. MakerDAO had one so bad this year it’s called “Black Thursday.” There was also the exploit against flash loan provider bZx. These things do break and when they do money gets taken.
As this sector gets more robust, we could see token holders greenlighting more ways for investors to profit from DeFi niches.
Right now, the deal is too good for certain funds to resist, so they are moving a lot of money into these protocols to liquidity mine all the new governance tokens they can. But the funds – entities that pool the resources of typically well-to-do crypto investors – are also hedging. Nexus Mutual, a DeFi insurance provider of sorts, told CoinDesk it has maxed out its available coverage on these liquidity applications. Opyn, the trustless derivatives maker, created a way to short COMP, just in case this game comes to naught.
And weird things have arisen. For example, there’s currently more DAI on Compound than have been minted in the world. This makes sense once unpacked but it still feels dicey to everyone.
That said, distributing governance tokens might make things a lot less risky for startups, at least with regard to the money cops.
“Protocols distributing their tokens to the public, meaning that there’s a new secondary listing for SAFT tokens, [gives] plausible deniability from any security accusation,” Zehavi wrote. (The Simple Agreement for Future Tokens was a legal structure favored by many token issuers during the ICO craze.)
Whether a cryptocurrency is adequately decentralized has been a key feature of ICO settlements with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

What’s next for yield farming? (A prediction)

COMP turned out to be a bit of a surprise to the DeFi world, in technical ways and others. It has inspired a wave of new thinking.
“Other projects are working on similar things,” said Nexus Mutual founder Hugh Karp. In fact, informed sources tell CoinDesk brand-new projects will launch with these models.
We might soon see more prosaic yield farming applications. For example, forms of profit-sharing that reward certain kinds of behavior.
Imagine if COMP holders decided, for example, that the protocol needed more people to put money in and leave it there longer. The community could create a proposal that shaved off a little of each token’s yield and paid that portion out only to the tokens that were older than six months. It probably wouldn’t be much, but an investor with the right time horizon and risk profile might take it into consideration before making a withdrawal.
(There are precedents for this in traditional finance: A 10-year Treasury bond normally yields more than a one-month T-bill even though they’re both backed by the full faith and credit of Uncle Sam, a 12-month certificate of deposit pays higher interest than a checking account at the same bank, and so on.)
As this sector gets more robust, its architects will come up with ever more robust ways to optimize liquidity incentives in increasingly refined ways. We could see token holders greenlighting more ways for investors to profit from DeFi niches.
Questions abound for this nascent industry: What will MakerDAO do to restore its spot as the king of DeFi? Will Uniswap join the liquidity mining trend? Will anyone stick all these governance tokens into a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO)? Or would that be a yield farmers co-op?
Whatever happens, crypto’s yield farmers will keep moving fast. Some fresh fields may open and some may soon bear much less luscious fruit.
But that’s the nice thing about farming in DeFi: It is very easy to switch fields.
submitted by pascalbernoulli to Yield_Farming [link] [comments]

India: Blockchain And Data Privacy: An India Perspective

Link to Mondaq: https://www.mondaq.com/india/fin-tech/978488/blockchain-and-data-privacy-an-india-perspective

A. Introduction

As a sequel to the first paper of Blockchain & Law article series titled 'A New Digital Order - Unveiling the Interplay of Law & Blockchain Technology', this paper explores the inter-operability of India's data privacy regime and blockchain technology. In this regard, recording of a webinar conducted on 'Blockchain & Data Privacy: An India Perspective' by the AKS Partners can be viewed on YouTube here.

B. Data privacy in India

Constitution of India

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive, all-encompassing provision that inheres within itself basic, fundamental rights that are absolutely essential to the existence of a human being with dignity and personal liberty. In the judgment of K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India,1 a nine-judge bench of the Honourable Supreme Court of India held that the right to privacy falls within the contours of Article 21 and is incidental to life and personal liberty. This right to privacy includes the right to data protection and privacy.

Information Technology Act, 2000

In India, data privacy is governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 ("IT Act") and the Information Technology (Reasonable security practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information) Rules, 2011 ("SPDI Rules"). Sections 43A (Compensation for failure to protect data) of the IT Act provides a statutory right to a data provider to claim compensation for unapproved disclosure of information (including in breach of a contract). Under Section 72A (Punishment for disclosure of information in breach of lawful contract) of the IT Act, wherever any person including an intermediary discloses information obtained under a lawful contract without consent shall be punished with imprisonment or with fine or both.

SPDI Rules

The SPDI Rules constitute a set of basic obligations to be adhered to in circumstances where sensitive data is being collected. It may be noted that the SPDI Rules apply only to 'Sensitive Personal Data or Information'.2 The SPDI Rules lay down guidelines for collection (Rule 5) and transfer of information (Rule 7) and also mandatorily require body corporates to adopt and implement a policy for privacy and disclosure of information (Rule 4).
On 24 August 2011, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology issued a clarification to the SPDI Rules ("Regulatory Clarification"). The Regulatory Clarification states that the SPDI Rules are applicable only to body corporates or persons located within India. Also, where a body corporate deals in data of any legal entity located within or outside India under a contractual arrangement, the SPDI Rules pertaining to collection (Rule 5) and disclosure of information (Rule 6) would not apply. It was also clarified that requirement to obtain written consent under Rule 5(1) of the SPDI Rules includes electronic consent as well.

The Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 ("Bill")

The Bill is inspired from and is in many ways a replica of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulations ("GDPR"). The Bill lays down several provisions including in relation to crossborder transfer of data, sandboxing, privacy by design and introduces a more robust set of obligations for entities handling sensitive personal data. The Bill is currently pending before a Joint Parliamentary Committee. The Bill applies to and categorises data into 'Personal Data', 'Sensitive Personal Data' and 'Critical Personal Data'.

Sectoral regulations

Regulated sectors such as telecom and financial services have separate obligations of confidentiality which restricts disclosure and transfer of customer personal information and mandates use of such information only in the manner agreed with the customer. Certain sectoral regulators (like Reserve Bank of India) also mandate data localisation.

C. Blockchain technology and data privacy

For details on the working of a blockchain network, please refer to our previous paper here.
Coverage
The Bill defines 'Personal Data') as 'data about or relating to a natural person who is directly or indirectly identifiable'. This means where the origins of the data cannot be traced down to a natural person, the data would cease to be 'Personal Data'. Resultantly, storing the data in a manner where it cannot be traced to a natural person (including by introducing and implementing robust methods to address re-identification risks) may prove beneficial in reducing a blockchain network's interaction with data privacy regulations (such as by encryption or anonymisation of Personal Data).
Public v. Private Blockchain
Private blockchain which restricts and regulates network participation appears to be a more preferable fit when it comes to ensuring compliance with data privacy laws. Public blockchains with permissionless borders pose greater difficulty in procuring every participant to agree on and comply with relevant rules on protection of personal data.
Stakeholders
The Bill identifies three categories of stakeholders (similar to GDPR) viz. Data Principals, Data Fiduciary and Data Processor. The SPDI Rules only provides for data provider and body corporate or person collecting data. The term 'Processing' has been defined to include collection, storage, retrieval, adaptation, disclosure etc. (Section 3(31)). Accordingly, any data stored or transmitted on blockchain will amount to processing.
Blockchain network is a decentralised system with each node / miner (i.e. network participant) spread all over the world. There is no clear demarcation between a Data Principal and a Data Fiduciary or a Data Processor over a blockchain network. The way the network functions, no single person can be said to be in-charge of the network thereby making it all the more problematic for regulators to fix the compliance burden on a party. Accordingly, the question of determining the identity status and fixing liability of various participants attains significance and complexity over a distributed ledger network like blockchain.
Each node over the network functions as a Data Processor on account of participation in the verification of the data. At the same time one or more of such nodes may also be acting as a Data Principal. With respect to mining over the network while it is a single miner who is able to formulate a valid hash, all the other miners also participate in the mining activity when they attempt to arrive at the winning lottery number. Thus making such miner also a Data Processor. While fixing liability on a private blockchain network that restricts the number of network participants is comparatively less complex, the same would be quite challenging on a public blockchain network, such as Bitcoin. With regard to identifying the status and roles, the guidance issued by French data protection authority ("CNIL Guidance")3 in the context of GDPR is useful. The CNIL Guidance categorises blockchain actors into the following groups: (a) participants with full read and write access to the data; (b) participants with read only access; and (c) miners that validate the transactions.
Participants falling in category (a) above are Data Controllers (equivalent to a Data Fiduciary under the Bill) while categories (b) and (c) are not.
Collection and processing of data over a blockchain network
The Bill sets out a number of obligations that have to be performed by the Data Fiduciaries, some key compliances being, obtaining consent of the data principals, retaining the data only till absolutely necessary (Storage Limitation), providing notice to the Data Principals, ensuring data is used only for the purpose (which has to be specific, clear and lawful) for which it has been taken (Purpose Limitation). Rule 5 of the SPDI Rules also lays down similar obligations for collection of data. Key concerns that the inherent and intrinsic nature of the blockchain technology raises are as under:
Firstly, with respect to the Storage Limitation principle, the immutable nature of the technology prevents the data from being deleted once the purpose has been fulfilled.
Secondly, given the decentralised nature of blockchain, it becomes challenging to determine the exact purpose for which data is collected over such a widespread network and who is to keep a check that the data so collected is used only for such predefined purposes.
Thirdly, it is commonly argued that the network participants over a blockchain impliedly consent while sharing their data. This may not however fulfil the requirements under the Bill which requires consent to be clear, through an affirmative action. This gives birth to concomitant regulatory issues over a decentralised system as to who shall oblige with these compliances under the law and who should be made responsible / liable for any lapses in compliance.
Lastly, the Bill also proposes certain additional requirements such as transparent and fair processing and the Purpose Limitation. The blurred distinction in the status of identities in blockchain makes determining purpose and manner of processing challenging.
A detailed governance framework setting out roles and responsibilities, off-chain and on-chain personal data, may provide useful guidance towards addressing the aforementioned concerns.
Key rights of Data Principals

Right to Confirmation and Access

The Bill entitles the Data Principals to seek information regarding the types and nature of personal data stored with the Data Fiduciaries, or to ascertain the nature of processing activities that has been undertaken on his/her data, or seek a brief summary of processing activities undertaken. While enforcement of this right may not be technically difficult, however, blockchain networks may establish a proper governance framework that delineates a specific authority to pass over the requisite data to the data principal as and when asked for. The network may also consider laying out methods of searching and accessing the necessary information which may be de-encrypted with the use of the private key.

Right to Correction

Section 18 of the Bill and Rule 5 of the SPDI Rules provides the right to rectify or correct the data. Given the immutable nature of the decentralised ledger maintained on a blockchain, exercising this right may not be compatible. To accomplish alteration/correction of data would be a burdensome task since it will require a majority of nodes to come together to identify the data, alter and re-hash not just the concerned block but also all previous blocks as well. Alternatively, a new block with corrected information may be added once verified through the consensus mechanism.

Right to be Forgotten

The Bill introduces 'Right to be Forgotten' ("RTF"). RTF entitles data principals to request the removal of his/her personal data, without undue delay, from any business's storage. RTF has been in loggerheads with the inherent immutability of blockchain technology. Across jurisdictions the term 'forgotten' has been pegged with erasure and is construed in various senses in different jurisdictions, ranging from data anonymisation,4 destruction of hardware,5 putting data beyond use.6
Given the distinction within the types of blockchain, the modes for exercising RTF are uniform by and large. A widely discussed solution is the destruction of the private key, thereby rendering the data encrypted by a public key inaccessible.7 Owing to the setup of blockchain, a Data Principal may reach out to any entity in the chain that qualifies as a Data Fiduciary to enforce their rights. Similar
to the Google-Spain case,8 wherein data subject's action against Google remained unaffected by the fact that the data could have been removed by the newspaper's website itself.9 However, the nature of a public blockchain network that does not identify a central authority might prove somewhat problematic where the data principal seeks to enforce his/her right.
As countries are yet to formulate policies with respect to regulation of blockchains, some other alternatives for exercising RTF can be programming chameleon hashes, zero knowledge proofs or a censorable blockchain, as the same would be 'forgetful'.10
Cross-Border Transfer of Data
Chapter VII of the Bill, which deals with restrictions on cross-border transfer of data, requires a copy of the Sensitive Personal Data to be stored domestically while Critical Personal Data must exclusively be processed and stored in India. However, these clear demarcations blur when applied to a blockchain ecosystem where storage and processing of data can be universal. Transfer of Sensitive Personal Data, requires explicit consent and the transfer must be under a contract or an intra-group scheme approved by the data protection authority (envisaged to be established under the Bill). While both of these requirements may get fulfilled over a private blockchain easily, a public blockchain due to undefined groups and lack of a central entity / authority may find it more challenging to implement adequate safeguards on restricting such transfer. Over a private blockchain the central body may enter into e-contracts with any number of participants and also obtain their explicit consent.
Under the present regime, Rule 7 of the SPDI Rules provides that a transfer outside India may only be allowed where the country offers the same level of protection to the data. Again, enforcing this may be challenging over a public blockchain network comprising of thousands of nodes across borders. An in-built cross-border transfer consent clause in the governance framework or otherwise may also provide the needed legitimacy from the perspective of data privacy.

D. Jurisdictional Issues

The present uncertainty in law (including lack of adequate legal provisions) has resulted in jurisdictional issues concerning the domestic and transnational presence of the blockchain network. While Section 1(2) read with Section 75 of the IT Act accords limited extra-territorial applicability to the Act, the SPDI Rules, as mentioned in the Regulatory Clarification are applicable only to body corporates or persons located in India. Consequently, blockchain technology may need to comply with the IT Act to a certain extent, while, the mandate under the SPDI Rules will bind only the nodes/miners operating from India. As a result, the network participants operating outside India on the same blockchain will not be required to comply with the SPDI Rules or IT Act.
Section 2 of the Bill affords extra-territorial application but only in certain limited circumstances viz. where the processing which takes place outside India is in connection with any business in India, or which involves the profiling of individuals within India. This will result in a subjective assessment of blockchains and its purposes in order to ascertain the applicability of the provisions of the Bill.
The Civil-Commercial Courts in India, have applied the test as to whether a website is an 'interactive website'11 for determination of jurisdiction, in relation to websites that do not have a physical place of business in a jurisdiction.12 In other words, wherever a website facilitates or even intends to facilitate active trade / commercial transactions in jurisdictions where it does not have a physical place of business, in such cases cause of action, if any, arises in all such jurisdictions where the website operates interactively. However, applying such a test on a blockchain network may not be so straightforward. The intrinsic nature of the blockchain technology allows for processing and storage of data at multiple domestic and international jurisdictions simultaneously. Resultantly, in both domestic as well as international, identification of the place of cause of action becomes complex. The complexity increases as identification of the individuals processing and storing data (nodes) would require de-anonymisation.
The determination of applicable laws will also depend on the nature of a blockchain network. It is practically more difficult to regulate a public blockchain network than a private blockchain network. In a private blockchain the architect/controlling entity may determine the governing laws or the governance framework may provide for a governing law.
In light of the foregoing, it may come as a mammoth task for governments to enforce their respective data protection and cyber-security legislations against such transnational networks without consensus on a multi-national treaty suggesting a model law to regulate the use of blockchain networks. In the alternative, laws may promote self-regulation by merely identifying basic tenets of regulations like governing law, data privacy, certification etc. Non-compliance may include compulsory suspension/termination of participation rights of nodes or blocking access to blockchains which do not provide for adequate self-regulation.
The developers of blockchain networks may consider incorporating dispute resolution and regulatory mechanisms as integral parts of the networks. The developers may also consider coding networks with peer-to-peer decentralized courts such as 'kleros' or 'codelegit' as part of a network's dispute resolution process.

E. Way forward

Blockchain technology carries the potential of disrupting business operations right from supply, manufacturing, logistics and final consumption especially in a post Covid-19 era. Please refer to our previous article on use cases of blockchain here. Accordingly, it is crucial that data privacy laws (with adequate concessions, where necessary) be treated as an enabler and not inhibitor to continued adoption of blockchain technology. Certain additional rights like data portability and right to withdraw consent adds to the complexity of having a compliant blockchain network. Certain obligations like mandatory registration may also be problematic if the government notifies certain blockchain network as a significant data fiduciaries.
Set out below are few indicative measures towards harmonious application of data privacy laws and blockchain technology:
1) Every blockchain network must provide a detailed governance framework that is in alignment with the basic requirements under data privacy regulations. Such a framework would have to be binding on all participants over a blockchain network, stating all rights, obligations and duties of parties, including a detailed mechanism for communication, security measures, cross-border data transfer, and grievance redressal and may even set out applicable laws etc.
2) Such a self-governance framework could also include a privacy by design policy and provisions for Data Protection Impact Assessment (as set out in Chapter VI of the Bill).
3) 'Pruning' is used for situations where historical blocks of data beyond a certain timeline are deleted. Similarly, where data has to be altered or rectified, the same may be done by 'forking' where data is altered or deleted, the hash changed and a new fork is created. However, over a public blockchain Pruning and Forking can be challenging and may require a huge amount of computing consensus.
4) To ensure the safeguarding of right to privacy a Memory Optimized and Flexible Blockchain (MOF-BC) can be considered as an effective measure. It enables the IoT (Internet of Things) users and service providers to edit their transactions, thereby altering the details of data entry.13
submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

id2020

Hello,
This is a very important public service announcement concerning our future well being. I found this information very interesting and should be read by everyone. Please take the time to read it over:
We are approaching a future in which they will mandate us to have an RFID microchip implanted in our body. This microchip will contain all our personal information, and we will lose much more of our privacy because of the tracking capabilities.
Did you know this microchip matches perfectly with prophecy in the Bible? Please read on!
"He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666" (Revelation 13:16-18 NKJV).
Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless money society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise we could still buy or sell without the mark among others if physical money was still currency. This mark could not be spiritual, because the word references two different physical locations. If it was spiritual, it would just say in the forehead.
We can see throughout the history of society how we are being conditioned through the process of convenience. More specifically with how we make payments. We went from physical currency to credit and debit cards containing digital currency, to these cards having a microchip in them, to now being able to place your card near a device that will read its data. As well as self check-out lines in our market places and the cryptocurrency industry making a rapid climb in such form as bitcoin. These are all stepping stones for the powers that run this world to bring about their ultimate goal, that is to place a microchip in each and every one of us.
RFID microchip implant technology is on the rise and will be the future of a one world cashless money society.
Continue reading to see how it perfectly matches up with Biblical prophecy!
From a YouTube video titled, "Warning From Man Who Designed RFID Microchip"
Here are some notes from the video:
"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle(a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).
Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible(Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.
Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand(the two places Revelation says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, crime record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.
Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.”"
Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. The doctor replied by saying a terrible sore would appear in that spot. This is what the book of Revelation says: "And the first(Angel) went, and poured out his vial on the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore on the men which had the mark of the beast, and on them which worshipped his image" (Revelation 16:2).
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BEAST, THE NUMBER OF ITS NAME? THE MYSTERY OF THE NUMBER 666 REVEALED?
What I first want to mention, before I share my thoughts on the number of the beast, is that God confirms in threes. We can see this throughout scripture: "For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one" (1 John 5:7 NKJV). "and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures" (1 Corinthians 15:4 NKJV). "...Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!" (Revelation 4:8 NKJV). There are many more examples, but I thought I would just share three of them to make the point.
Examining Revelation 13:16-18, the first group of three I would like to point out is that the mark of the beast is described in three separate verses, 16, 17 and 18. The next three I see is in verse 16, "He causes all..." is followed by three contrasting categories of people, "both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave...". Then unto verse 17, it opens with, "and that no one may buy or sell except one who has...", followed by three explanations of what one must have to buy or sell, "...the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name". Then in verse 18, we read "Let him who has understanding calculate...", which is followed by, "the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666". The last three I see is the number 6 being used three times in a row. The reason I'm making this point is because of the number 666, as you will read below.
"17: even that not any could buy or sell, except the one having the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of its name" (Literal Greek Translation).
Here we see the mark being identified as having the name of the beast, and that name being identified as being a number. We can know that these attributes being described in verse 17 are all in one thing because the Bible warns of us about receiving the mark, singular. It is clear in verse 17 that we cannot buy or sell without the mark(being previously identified as a microchip), but why cant we buy or sell without the name of the beast, or the number of its name? What does that have to do with us buying or selling if the number of the beast only applies to identifying the Antichrist, as the common thought has been? So we need the number of the beast to buy or sell. What does this mean?
"here the wisdom is, the one having the mind let him calculate the number of the wild beast, number for of human it is, and the number of it 666" (Revelation 13:8 Greek Translation).
"Here is wisdom. Let him that has understanding count the number of the beast: for the number of man; and its number is six hundred sixty-six" (Jubilee Bible 2000 translation).
"In this situation wisdom is needed. Let the person who has insight figure out the number of the beast, because it is a human number. The beast's number is 666" (GOD'S WORD translation).
The Greek word "anthrōpos" being used in verse 18 where it says "of human" is the Greek strongs concordance G444. The first two definitions of the word are "a human being, whether male or female", and, "generically, to include all human individuals". Could the number of the beast apply to all mankind? In the Greek, and other translations, you will notice the beast is described as an "it", instead of "him". The reason I'm making this point is because when a translation says "His number is 666", this would imply a singular person, the Antichrist. But by saying "the number of it 666", implies that it is of the beast system as a whole.
Throughout the years there have been people trying to calculate numbers based on titles and names that come up to the number 666 to identify one person. But from verse 18, I do not see where God is telling us to count up to 666, but rather to count the number of the beast. This number is identified as 666. So the verse is telling us to count the number 666.
What does it mean to count? It means to add up. So how could we add up 666? Remember my previous point about God confirming in threes. So logically, what would be the best way to count the number 666? To count it equally in threes based off the number. We cannot count it equally as 600+60+6, this would also bring us back to the start. We cannot count it as 600+600+600, or 60+60+60, because there are no zeroes in between or at the end of 666. The only option is 6+6+6=18. What is interesting is that the verse that reveals for us to count the number itself is verse 18, being the third verse out of three verses that describe the mark of the beast. What is 18 divided by 3? 6. So 3x6=18, or 6+6+6=18.
Another interesting point is the only two other combinations(making a total of three possible combinations) for placing a "+" symbol in between the 6's are 66+6=72, and 6+66=72. Adding 7+2 and 7+2 equals 18. Add both 72's together and you get 144. Why the number 144 is interesting is because the verse following Revelation 13:18 is the first time in the Bible where the 144,000 are being described in detail: "Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads..." (Revelation 14:1).
Now if you add up all three numbers by counting 666 by moving the "+" symbol around, it would be 72+72+18=162. What is interesting about the number 162, is, if you divide 144,000 by 162, you get 888. The name of Jesus in Greek gematria adds up to 888. Revelation 14:1 not only mentions the 144,000, but also the Lamb who is Jesus.
Applying the same format that I used with calculating the number 666, in which I got the numbers 144 and 162, they also bring interesting results bringing us to the number 18:
• 14+4=18*
• 16+2=18*
• 1+4+4=(9), 1+6+2=(9), (9+9)=18*
• 1+44=(45), 1+62=(63), (4+5)=9, (6+3)=9, 9+9=18* | (45+63)=108, 10+8=18*
• 14+4=(18), 1+44=(45), (1+8)=9, (4+5)=9, 9+9=18* | (18+45)=[63] | 16+2=(18), 1+62=(63), (1+8)=9, (6+3)=9, 9+9=18* | (18+63)=[81] | [6+3]=9, [8+1]=9, 9+9=18* | [63+81]=144
• 1+4+4=(9), 14+4=(18), 1+44=(45), (9+18+45)=[72] (any two combinations of (9, 18, 45, and 72 will add to 18) | 1+6+2=(9), 16+2=(18), 1+62=(63), 9+18+63=[90] (any two combinations of (9, 18, 63, and 90 will get you 18*) | [7+2]=9, [9+0]=9, 9+9=18 | [72+90]=162
Now what is interesting about the number for Jesus, 888, is that if you apply this same formula, you get 8+8+8=24. Why the number 24? Revelation chapter 4 tells us there are 24 elders seated around the throne of God. This is the same throne where Jesus sits.
Now if you take 8+8+8=24, and 8+88=96, and 88+8=96, you get 24+96+96=216. Take 144,000 divided by 216 and you get 666. Remember that this was the same exact formula to get the number 162 out of counting 666 that brought about the number 888 when dividing 144,000 by 162. It is perpetual.
With using the same formula of counting by adding the "+" symbol in between the numbers, why do all these numbers relate in such a way?
Another interesting point to note is that if you add up all the numbers from 1 to 36, it totals 666. The number 36, as in three sixes? Could this be a hint that we should add up three sixes instead of perceiving the number as six-hundred sixty six?
So what could this mean? Well we know in this world we are identified by numbers in various forms. From our birth certificate to social security, as well as our drivers license, being identified based on a system of rulership. So it is possible that this RFID microchip will contain a new identification that has a total of 18 characters. Could this be the name of the beast, the number of its name? The beast system that is identified by 18 characters? This would fit scripture that speaks of a mark that we must have to buy or sell in our right hand or forehead, and that it also contains the number of the beast, during a future cashless money society.
Revelation 13:11-15 tells us that a false prophet will rise up deceiving many to take the mark of the beast because of the miracles he does before men. At all costs do not take it!
"Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name" (Revelation 14:9-11).
Did you hear about the lady from a major media outlet who reported a major event occurring approximately 20 minutes before it actually happened?
It's time we know the truth.
A reporter from BBC reported the collapse of World Trade Center 7 on September 11th 2001 approximately 20 minutes before it actually fell!
Remember, WTC 7 did not get hit by anything, so there would be no reason to assume it would collapse. But she didn't report on assumption, but that it already did collapse!
What could this mean? The only logical explanation is that the power that orchestrated 9/11 is the same power that controls the major media outlets!
Don't believe me? Watch the broadcast yourself uploaded on YouTube titled: "BBC Reports 911, WTC 7 Collapse BEFORE it Happens"
It gets even worse...
Did you know there is other footage they don't want us to see twice? I'm speaking of footage on the day of September 11th 2001 during the time the planes hit both Trade Towers. Eye witness reports say the following concerning the planes:
• "No, it wasn't a commercial airliner" • "...but it didn't have any markings on it that I saw" • "no emblems, no logos" • "It definitely did not look like a commercial plane" • "I did not see any windows on the sides" • "It was a black plane, it looked like a fighter jet" • "It was black, it looks like a military plane" • "It was a military plane"
This video also shares testimonies from firefighters who share their experience being in the world trade towers as bombs were exploding(to weaken the structure of the buildings to cause the free fall collapse).
As a terrorist, how could you smuggle bombs into the trade towers with all of its security systems which includes bomb sniffing dogs? Also, if terrorists did plant the bombs, then why weren't we told about the bombs?!
You can watch a video of this on YouTube by titled: "9/11 - THE FOOTAGE THEY DIDN'T LET YOU SEE TWICE (9/11 2001 Documentary)"
What about the attack on the Pentagon? Was it really a plane that hit it, or something else, maybe a missle?
Why did the FBI go around and confiscate camera footage from the surrounding buildings not releasing them to the public when they clearly showed us the planes that hit the world trade towers?
Why was the only footage released to the public from one of the most heavily guarded buildings in the world low quality footage showing only five frames at about one frame per second?
The U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld admitted the day before the attack that the Pentagon was missing 2.3 trillion dollars. Could this attack on the Pentagon have anything to do with covering up that information?
So where am I going with all of this? What's the purpose of this major event that occurred on September 11th 2001? Why did we go to war with Afghanistan and Iraq?
David Rockefeller is quoted to be saying:
"Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure--one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.” ― David Rockefeller, Memoirs
Another video to watch is an infamous interview done with movie producer Aaron Russo titled, "Aaron Russo RFID Human Implant Chip"
Aaron Russo produced such movies as Mad as Hell, Trading Places, and America: Freedom to Fascism. He gained the attention of a man named Nick Rockefeller who saw the movie Made as Hell and knew Aaron was running for governor of Nevada. Knowing the impact Aaron was having on society, who being a freedom fighter standing for the constitution of the United States, Nick sought to befriend him to subtly recruit him into his secret society.
Aaron shares what Nick had told him:
"He's the one who told me 11 months before 9/11 ever happened that there was going to be an event. He never told me what the event was going to be...and out of that event we were going to invade Afghanistan to run pipelines from the Caspian Sea. We are going to invade Iraq to take over the oil fields to establish a base in the middle east, and make it all part of the New World Order..."
"I remember he was telling me how he was going to see soldiers looking in caves for people in Afghanistan and Pakistan and all these places. And there was going to be this war on terror, where this is no real enemy, and the whole thing is a giant hoax. But it is a way for the government to take over the American people..."
Aaron asked Nick, "What's the end goal? And he said the end goal is to get everyone chipped to control the whole society. To have the bankers, the elite people controlling the world..."
Visit https://www.biblefreedom.com to see all the proof! It is at the point where it takes more faith not to believe that the Bible truly is the word of God!
You will see proof for Noah's Ark, the Red Sea Crossing, Sodom and Gromorrah, scientific evidence the Bible is inspired by God, testimonies from all walks of life concerning Jesus, and much more!
"EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR..." - JOHN LENNOX
"We all know God exists. Why? Because without Him, we couldn't prove anything at all. Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No. So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does. Who is capable of knowing everything? God. So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God."
It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero. What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing. Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?
Earth resides in the darkest location within our galaxy and our galaxy within the darkest location in our universe making intelligent life possible. This allows us to observe all of the universe, from the cosmic beginning, all the way through. We are able to confirm that the Bible got it right from the start by saying, "In the beginning God created the heaven and earth..." (Genesis 1:1), and says our universe is expanding thousands of years before we discovered these things. In fact, the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all other major "holy" books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them. Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross, a best selling author, has lead many scientists to faith in Jesus showing how the book of nature and the Bible are allies rather than enemies.
1959, in Turkey was found a man-made ship buried and preserved underneath volcanic ash at the elevation of 6,500 feet. The Bible says Noah's Ark rested on the Mountains of Ararat after the flood waters receded. Not only was this ship found on the Mountains of Ararat, it is also the exact same length God told Noah to build the Ark; that is, 515 feet and 7 inches. Ron Wyatt, along with a team of scientists, lead the research of this artifact.
Thousands of archaeological discoveries throughout the years have confirmed the Bible to be true. From major events such as artifacts found across the bottom of the Red Sea confirming the Exodus account, to 98% pure sulfur balls rained down on the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, unlike any sulfur found on the earth; to further findings confirming the history of people, places and other events that occurred in the Bible. If the miracles in the Bible seem too farfetched, remember, the greatest miracle has already occured, the creation of the universe. Without God, miracles are absurd, "...but with God all things are possible" (Matthew 19:26).
Jesus fulfilled more than 300 Messianic prophecies concerning His birth place, details of His life, His mission, His nature, His death, and His resurrection. He came to pay a debt that we could not, to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: "For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord" (Romans 6:23).
For God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself. All the law hang on these commands. We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom. If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!
Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin. The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God's law. If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish. We must walk in the Spirit, producing fruits of love and forgiveness, so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like. Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26). If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2). Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations. It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our hearts desire that they become sin (James 1:12-15). When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil's image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God. For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14).
The oldest religion in the world is holiness (James 1:27). What religion did Adam and Eve follow before the fall? Jesus, Who became the last Adam, what religion does He follow? Is He not holy? He never told us to follow any man made religion, but to deny ourselves, take up our cross daily, and follow Him (Luke 9:23). There are many false doctrines being taught leading people astray. This is why we need the Holy Spirit for discernment. Unlike religion, holiness cannot be created. It is the eternal Spirit of God given to us from above. Jesus is more than a religion; He is about having a personal relationship with the Father. Start by reading the Gospel of Matthew, to hear the words of God, to know His character and commandments. Follow and obey Jesus, for He is the way, the truth, and the life! (John 14:6)
submitted by tylertime98 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

What unites Bitcoin, gold, and Apple shares? — TkeyNet

What unites Bitcoin, gold, and Apple shares? — TkeyNet

https://preview.redd.it/ctpbqg8jbjg51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=f7337e416de7124455dd5d072b5ee529067af6b3
Today we will briefly review the main points that will clarify the upcoming changes in the TKEY project.
If you missed previous publications about TkeyNet, be sure to read them:

Future changes to the TKEY project

TKEY Asset

Just like the first Protocol (Core 1.0), the TKEY asset used in the TkeyNet network — there are no changes in this plan. After launching TkeyNet, you can transfer TKEY to any user on the TKEY network without any restrictions.

Quick transactions

Transactions in TkeyNet will be much faster than it was before. You can check it in practice.

TkeyConnect Module

The Protocol has a built-in TkeyConnect module, which allows you to connect various blockchains to our network to conduct transactions directly in the TkeyNet blockchain. Besides, TkeyConnect meets the international ISO and ISIN standards, which also allows you to conduct transactions with Fiat currencies and shares in the TkeyNet blockchain.
TkeyConnect creates a flexible system, giving users the ability to store and conduct transactions in any assets, be it Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin or dollars, euros, etc.
https://preview.redd.it/rkroh5ulbjg51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=c47a094c9ae3d22131bebea80badafd0dd1f8dd6

New software

If the previous software based on the Core 1.0 Protocol, after switching to TkeyNet, wallets, a blockchain search engine, and other software related to the project will be adapted to the new Protocol.

Contact information and support service

Email addresses of the support service and other departments will be transferred to other service providers and will structure in the following areas: B2B and B2C. The list of email addresses will publish after updates are complete.
B2B (business-to-business) a term that means that a company or a division of a company sells its goods/services to corporate clients, that is, to other companies. B2C (business-to-consumer) is a term that refers to the commercial relationship between an organization (Business) and a private, so-called “end” consumer.

Websites

Information about the project, the company, and its products will subdivide into two websites: tkeycoin.com and tkey.org. The purpose of this division is to simplify product navigation, improve the appearance of pages for each product and solution, and update content.
The solution is modular. The information will be structured according to sections and sites, dividing the corporate and user segments. As the products develop, the information will be updated.
Technical specifications, documentation, and a description of the Protocol and its features will appear on the official website: tkey.org. Sections will fill in gradually.

Testing and launching TkeyNet

Between July 22 and July 24, Telnet was successfully launched in testnet mode. Our team is actively testing the entire TkeyNet network and its functions. The system is tested with different scenarios, its effectiveness is checked when working with high loads, and the security of the entire system is audited. Testing of TkeyNet is an important stage of production aimed at detailed research of the program code and identification of errors in the system operation. Comprehensive testing, which is carried out by our team, is necessary to determine the level of readiness of the system for subsequent operation. Testing is based on a set of test scenarios that cover the main business operations.
The testing process contains all the life cycle activities: dynamic and static indicators. The testing process involves planning, preparing, and evaluating a software product. The purpose of testing is to determine that all meet the requirements described, as well as to show that they are suitable for the stated purposes and for detecting errors.

The Digital Asset Exchange

After launching TkeyNet — we will publish the start date of trading on the exchange. Information is available in the official notification: https://tkeycoin.com/en/news/.
https://preview.redd.it/moap4drobjg51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=3fbb1ac32741806c8c2c59081e5e14266ac9a2fe

FAQ

Buying and selling TKEY

You can buy or sell TKEY only on the exchange and not in any other source. Private transactions are subject to high risks. Once again, we remind you that at the time of updates, any transactions with TKEY will be invalid.

Safety of funds

If you use a local wallet on your computer, make a backup copy of the wallet.dat file. If you use a TkeySpace mobile wallet, make a backup copy of the private key (backup phrase).

Transactions before updates are completed

During updates-no transactions can be made on the network, which means that any private dealing made at the time of updates will be invalid. Additionally, we ask you to refrain from any actions related to TKEY until the end of updates protocol, including starting mining, local wallets, and reinstalling them.

Epilogue

Testing of the system and its functions takes place in a stable mode without days off. The test results that will receive at the end of this week will reflect the current state of Affairs. We will get up-to-date information about the end date of updates and the planned release date of TkeyNet.
An announcement of interim test results, as well as future updates, will be published at the end of this week or early next.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Blockchain in Healthcare – Webcast Q&A

Blockchain in Healthcare – Webcast Q&A
On our website, you can find the original article: https://block.co/webcastqa-blockchain-in-healthcare/
Block.co third webcast ” Blockchain in Healthcare: Bridging Trust in response to COVID-19“ received amazing feedback! We gathered some of the best experts in the field, Georgina Kyriakoudes, Ahmed Abdulla, Dimitri Neocleous, Dr. Alice Loveys to share their experience in the industry and discuss with us the latest updates in the sphere of Healthcare! In its third series of webcasts, Block.co gathered 253 people watching the event from 59 different countries, for a 90-minute webcast where guests answered participants’ questions.
Below is a list of the questions that were made and were not answered due to time constraints during the Blockchain in Healthcare webcast. Please note that the below information is only for educational purposes!
Question 1: I like what Dimitrios was saying regarding ownership and transfer. Health and social care have invested much in Information Management systems and processes. Transfer between NHS and social care is a typical block. Can you elaborate on how the blockchain sits across that – leapfrogs yet goes with the grain of what is already there in terms of shared records protocols, the exponentially growing types of professionals, pharmacists, careers, etc. that need early access to these records for better decision making.
Block.co Team Answer: Blockchain technology has the potential to improve healthcare, placing the patient at the center of the health care ecosystem, while providing security, privacy, and interoperability of health data. Blockchain could provide a new model for health information exchanges and transform electronic medical records to be more efficient, disintermediated, and secure. While it is not a cure, this new, Blockchain in Healthcare rapidly evolving field provides a sandbox for experimentation, investment, and proof-of-concept testing.
Healthcare systems around the world are preparing road maps that define critical policy and technical components needed for nationwide interoperability, including:
  • Ubiquitous, secure network infrastructure
  • Verifiable identity and authentication of all participants
  • Consistent illustration of authorization to access electronic health data, and several other requirements.
However, current technologies don’t totally address these necessities, and as a result, they face limitations associated with security, privacy, and full ecosystem interoperability.
Blockchain technology creates distinctive opportunities to scale back complexity, improve trustless collaboration, and create secure and immutable data. National Healthcare Systems need to track this rapidly evolving field to identify trends and sense the areas where government support may be needed for the technology to realize its full potential in health care. To form blockchain’s future, they ought to take into account mapping and gathering the blockchain ecosystem, establishing a blockchain framework to coordinate early-adopters, and supporting a pool for dialogue and discovery.
https://preview.redd.it/p17us55i6f851.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=80570ea170e78a728d69abb1602effeed1a50116
Question 2: What about the “compatibility” of blockchain solutions in healthcare with GDPR and/or other regulations about personal data protection.
Block.co Team Answer: The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Europe’s new framework for data protection laws, has a vital impact on healthcare organizations. During this more and more patient-centric world where global healthcare organizations collect a large set of data on patients to produce improved health outcomes, this increased regulation has an even larger impact.
GDPR presents challenges across all industries and includes language that has a special impact on healthcare. The regulation defines “personal” data as “any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (data subject); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.” On top of this definition, GDPR contains three extra, important definitions that pertain to health data:
  1. “Data concerning health” is defined by the GDPR as “personal data related to the physical or mental health of a natural person, including the provision of health care services, which reveal information about his or her health status.”
  2. “Genetic data” is outlined by the GDPR as “personal data relating to inherited or acquired genetic characteristics of a natural person which give unique information about the physiology or the health of that natural person and which result, in particular, from an analysis of a biological sample from the natural person in question.”
  3. “Biometric data” is “personal data resulting from specific technical processing relating to the physical, physiological, or behavioral characteristics of a natural person, which allows or confirms the unique identification of that natural person, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data.”
As described in Article 6 of GDPR, processing of personal data is considered lawful if: (1) the data subject has given consent; (2) it is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is a party; (3) it is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation; (4) it is necessary to protect the vital interest of the data subject or another natural person; (5) it is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest; (6) it is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or third party.
However, healthcare organizations that usually manage health data, have an added responsibility to take care of “data concerning health,” “genetic data,” and “biometric data” to a higher standard of protection than personal data, in general. GDPR prohibits the processing of these forms of health data unless one of the three conditions below would apply as per Article 9.
a. The data subject must have given “explicit consent.”
b. “Processing is necessary for the purposes of preventive or occupational medicine, for the assessment of the working capacity of the employee, medical diagnosis, the provision of health or social care or treatment or the management of health or social care systems and services …”
c. “Processing is necessary for reasons of public interest in the area of public health, such as protecting against serious cross-border threats to health or ensuring high standards of quality and safety of health care and of medicinal products or medical devices …”
Consent VS Explicit Consent – If one pays attention, there’s a difference in the GDPR’s health data use conditions (calls for “explicit consent”) and the general definition (calls for “consent”). Thus, there’s an ongoing debate as to what constitutes the difference between “unambiguous” and “explicit” consent. Despite the debate and the final legal clarifications, there is no doubt that in the purposes of the healthcare the “explicit consent” must have the strongest agreement form listing in detail the use(s) of data and covering the cases of data transfers and storage.
Question 3: How can we use blockchain technology by the government in Africanflavored government, say by Ministry of health to have patient autonomy of medical records that can be accessed by any government hospital irrespective of the ailment and record printed by the previous hospital and doctor, such as referral cases without having to open a new file in the referred hospital.
Block.co Team Answer: Perhaps that would be an ideal implementation of the Block.co solution issuing a digital certificate of medical examination on an Open Public Blockchain such as the Bitcoin blockchain, that would be decentralized in nature, easy to validate online without any special wallets, and would be provided by the patient on-demand, to refer to treatments received in other hospitals or areas. But this would require that the practitioner is aware and can use the open-source code or use Block.co services to issue these certificates. Alternatively, there could be the use of a wallet to store these medical credentials to be submitted on demand to health practitioners. Moreover, there would need to be an alignment of regulation in the matter as decentralized repositories are not recognized at the moment.

Question 4: Is there any data breach threat in the blockchain using a poorly protected private key at communication?
Block.co Team Answer: Millions of health care records have already been breached, and in attempts to combat this issue, solutions often result in the inaccessibility of health records. Health providers often send information to other providers, and this often ends up in mishandling of data, losing records, or passing on inaccurate and old data. In some cases, only one copy of an updated health record exists, and this may result in the loss of information. Health records often contain personal information such as names, social security numbers, and home addresses. When it comes to Blockchain in Healthcare, a poorly protected private key is always a factor to consider. A private key allows us to sign a transaction and spend funds residing in an address (public key) by providing ownership with the signature. It is a unique string of information that represents proof of identification inside the blockchain, which includes the right to access and control the participant’s wallet. It must be kept secret, as it is effectively a personal password. In the case that that private key is poorly protected, there is always a data breach threat.
Question 5: The medical record of a patient is owned by the patient. What happens if a doctor accesses the record without the consent of the patient? Using the smart contract, could there be a governing body, say a legal system that can call the doctor to order?
Block.co Team Answer: Rather than having each physical and electronic copies of records, blockchains may enable the shift to electronic health records (EHR). When looking at Blockchain in Healthcare, medical records on the blockchain would be within the management of the patient rather than a third party, through the patients’ private and public keys. Patients may then control access to their health records, making transferring information less cumbersome. Because blockchain ledgers are immutable, health information may not be deleted or tampered with. Blockchain transactions would be accompanied by a timestamp, permitting those with access to maintain updated information. The doctor would not be able to access the record without the consent of the patient. A patient would need to sign the transaction in a smart contract in order to transfer patient details to the doctor.
Question 6: So, how are private data protected when the patient is simply notified that unauthorized access just took place on her medical record? and, how are the negative results of this breach rectified towards the patient?
Block.co Team Answer: The patient would be notified to sign a transaction enabling access to the party requesting access to the specific medical record. In other cases, there could be a multi-signature wallet requiring multiple transactions in the cases where the patient may need assistance, for example, when underage or when not in a healthy state of mind, or being non-responsive or in critical condition. The patient needs to be responsible for his own data and be empowered through awareness and know-how of this technology. With great power, comes also great responsibility, although it is yet a challenge to enable computer illiterate people to interact with this technology.
Question 7: Can the same record of a patient still be shared with private hospitals and say another government/private hospital abroad on the same blockchain?
Block.co Team Answer: Depending on whether the information is on a public blockchain or a private blockchain. When on a private blockchain, they will need to be granted permission to access the blockchain accordingly.
Question 8: No one has directly spoken about ownership where a large research institution/ consortium is working with the data – it is not solely the person who has said so…
Block.co Team Answer: Indeed, it is solely not the person who has a say so. Technology may be used in both evil and good ways and it is still the obligation and responsibility of people within governments to ensure human liberties and rights are preserved when utilizing such powerful technologies such as blockchain and sometimes the combination of blockchain with AI, IoT, and biometrics. Blockchain in Healthcare, in the same way, that it can empower individuals and increase their standard of living and prosperity, at the same time, it can also empower corrupt governments with alternative agendas and totalitarian states. Block.co believes it is most important for people to be educated around the matter and be able to form a voice and movement to safeguard their human liberties and rights, hence our continuous effort on discussing these matters with our community and providing education, powered by the pioneers in the space, the University of Nicosia.
We would like to thank everyone for attending our webcast and hoping to interact with you in future webinars. If you would like to watch the webinar again, then click here!
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
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submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

aelf’s Blockchain-based Digital Asset Identification Standard approved by IEEE

aelf’s Blockchain-based Digital Asset Identification Standard approved by IEEE
Author: Ma Haobo

https://preview.redd.it/m1jtaghbqt651.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=4dd933b2b9b79a9de0c6eaeaac42a66ec6868c7e
Recently, the Standard for Blockchain-based Digital Asset Identification, submitted by aelf, was approved by the IEEE SA Standards Board New Standards Committee (NesCom). The standard specifies methods and practices of crypto asset identification. The standard also addresses attributes of the blockchain system digit asset identification including but not limited to data structure, data format, and related asset management operation specifications.
The purpose of this standard is to improve digital asset management with an asset identification specification in blockchain systems. The standard aims to provide a data format and structure references for organizations designing digital asset identification solutions — providing digital asset services and setting up operational specifications for organizations.
Current Situation and Problems of Assets Management on the chain.
In the blockchain system, the unspecified participants usually work together under set contract rules to complete a social production and management activity on the blockchain. Some of these activities are closely related to assets, such as payments, loans, asset transactions, games and entertainment, etc. .
There are various ways to define assets within a blockchain as well as when compared to other blockchains. For example, in Ethereum, ETH is an asset that is directly constrained by the underlying code of the block chain, while a Fungible token is defined by the contract interface ERC20, and a Non-Fungible token is defined by ERC721. There are also emerging asset agreements such as ERC998 and ERC1155.
Most users utilize a blockchain through specific terminals, which usually includes a blockchain browser, wallet, decentralized applications (DAPP), etc. By defining standards through contract interfaces, these users’ terminals can handle various assets in a standardized way. These DApps usually need to adapt to different contract interfaces, but also deal with non-contract defined assets like ETH. When these terminals need to support different blockchains, they require extra work to adapt.
The number of interfaces that user terminals need to deal with is increasing with the emergence of more blockchain systems. But most functions are equivalent in the assets definition. At the same time, there is a growing need to move assets from one chain to another chain. For example, there are some BTC value anchored assets in Ethereum, USDT is issued on bitcoin network and Ethereum network at the same time, and the assets on the aelf main-chain and side-chain can be transferred directly. But there is not a unified standard to solve the cross-chain data communication problem in the whole blockchain industry.
What a common asset standard might do to an industry
The birth of wETH is a great place to talk about “industry change” . wETH, which is Wrapped Ether, is an ETH asset Wrapped under ERC20. As mentioned above, ETH is a non-contractual asset, but why redefine it under ERC20? Some decentralised exchanges in Ethereum, which typically deal with ERC20 assets. But ETH, as one of the key assets in Ethereum, also needed to be backed by these decentralised exchanges, so wETH was born. Users can get the same amount wETH after locking ETH in the contract. Accordingly, users will be able to get the same amount ETH by destroying the wETH in the contract, so users can exchange any ERC20 Token including the ETH in these decentralized exchanges. This seems to be a good solution. However the transformation operation on the chain may bring permanent system complexity.
Users’ needs will always be different. After solving the problems of Eth and wETH, people hope to adapt the transaction to BTC. Due to the isomeric chain, there is no good atomic transfer scheme so far. Most BTC assets anchored in Ethereum are anchored by mortgages. The risk of the centralized BTC mortgage scheme lies in the safe custody of the mortgaged BTC. Systematic risks associated with the Ethereum on-chain mortgaged asset revolves around price fluctuations. Moreover, each scheme is neither simple nor elegant. When simple requirements face complex solutions, we need a simple solution.
Challenges may also arise when conducting Defi activities on a single chain as Ethereum transaction volume increases. When the trading volume increased in March 2020, the Maker’s data source could not keep up with outside real prices, and some mortgage orders went awry. When a single chain is not big enough to handle a high number of data transactions, it may be better to process these assets on higher performance cross chains, such as EOS. But we can’t deal with the ERC20 assets on EOS. Of course, aelf can not currently deal with ERC20 assets.
Current blockchain systems, on-chain assets, and especially fungible tokens, have special commonalities. Some cryptocurrency wallets have achieved compatibility with multiple blockchain systems. A unified blockchain asset standard is not specific to a certain kind of blockchain system and can drastically reduce the systemic costs of the entire industry.

IEEE Digital Asset Standard Proposals Overview

The IEEE digital asset proposal, submitted by aelf, defines the digital asset standard in terms of data structure, data format specification and management operation specifications related to asset identification.
Combined with the digital assets demand of blockchain systems, such as public and alliance chains, a flexible asset standard with strong versatility and multiple options is necessary.
In this standard, some assets’ properties will be defined, such as name, supply, decimal places, etc. Some basic operations are also defined, such as distribution, destruction, migration, and so on.
At the same time, we will define the standard form of cross-chain transfers on the premise that cross-chain data can be synchronized normally. In this regard, the aelf team members are continuing to invest in research and development. The aelf team also launched the Cross-Chain Transfer Protocol (CCTP), and held cross-chain transfer testing and a hacker bounty between the Ethereum and aelf testnet.
Expectations and perspectives on digital asset standards
If such a standard can be implemented, users can use a client to process various digital assets without difference. For example, if a user got a rare item in the EOS blockchain game, he can also sell the item to get USDT in an NFT exchange on Ethereum, and then sell the USDT to buy the BTC on the unique side-chain of aelf’s decentralized exchange (BTC/USDT), where only transactions for the conversion of BTC to USDT are processed.
Based on existing mainstream blockchain systems, it is difficult to achieve pre-compatibility. The first decade of blockchain is a decade of high-speed development in which new ideas and methods are constantly emerging. Therefore, it may be difficult to implement all the functions defined in the digital assets standard when the existing blockchain is not compatible with the standard protocols.
It is hoped that the digital assets standard can be easily implemented by each blockchain system. If a function is unique to a specific blockchain system, it should not be included in the standard.
After establishing this standard, it is expected to receive increasing support from multiple chains. When blockchain technology is a common feature utilized in mainstream applications, it can speed up assets’ liquidity.
submitted by Floris-Jan to aelfofficial [link] [comments]

Now €30 free at Bitwala (free bank account, no deposit!)

Bitwala has recently increased its referral bonus: now they are offering €30 free when you sign up for their free German bank account with a connected Bitcoin wallet. You can also get a free MasterCard from them.
No deposit needed! And available to UK as well as EU residents :)
You do not need to buy or trade any cryptocurrency.
Steps:
Here you can see if verification with an ID card is supported for your country (or only by passport): https://support.bitwala.com/hc/en-gb/articles/360000378000
Full conditions: https://www.bitwala.com/img/05-05-2020-bitwala-refer-a-friend-program-terms-and-conditions.pdf
Proof of payment: https://imgur.com/a/dm9SCWk
Let me know if you have any questions :)
submitted by blxyy to beermoneyuk [link] [comments]

Brave Browser v1.4.95 with WAYBACK MACHINE DETECTION and AD HISTORY FIXES.

Link dowload: https://brave.com/lmn287
In recent times, Brave browser quickly popularized and considered a unique browser for both laptops and phones, featuring an extremely fast page loading speed. So what is special about Brave and how to install it? Let's find out with BitcoinVN!

What is the Brave browser?

Unlike the Google Chrome browser or any common browser you usually see today, Brave is an open source browser developed by Brave Software Inc.
Based on Chromium browser kernel with deep customization to ensure security with blocking data collection, user behavior, blocking annoying ads and increasing browsing speed for users.
As of 2019, Brave supports both computers and phones with Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, and iOS operating systems.
📷

How does the Brave browser work?

Brave browser is available on iOS, Android, Mac OS, Windows and Linux platforms. Users on these platforms can browse safely and quickly. Brave does its job well without using much computer memory. Unlike most other popular browsers, Brave uses very little RAM (only about 170MB RAM).
One important thing to note: Brave is a Chromium-based browser. Browsers built on this platform are "notorious" for consuming a lot of memory, but Brave is an exception.

What is Brave browser special?

It is not natural that Brave browser when newly launched is such a community response. Some great features of the Brace browser:
📷

Default ad blocker

The biggest problem with mass browsers is that advertising is everywhere and cannot be controlled. Not only does that make users less interested in surfing the web, but advertising links when users visit them can be malware.
Understanding that, Brave has quickly launched automatic ad blocking. Users no longer need to search for the perfect ad blocker on the web. The ad blocking feature automatically protects the device from malware and tracking by advertisers. Brave is also working on a plan to replace potentially harmful ads.
Brave's ad tracking feature is very accurate. Users are suggested to be relevant ads because Brave performs tracking using local data. If an ad is unrelated to the user, it will be removed. Therefore, users receive appropriate ads based on this model. User data remains in the device because no third party is involved in this process.
Although Brave blocks third-party cookies, first-party cookies are not blocked by default. Users have the option to block or enable cookies on a given site.

Improve privacy while browsing the web

In particular, the feature of blocking malicious ads automatically allows users to surf the web safely. And Brave does not have access to user identification data. Data related to anonymous aggregated advertising campaigns is used, but cannot be retrieved back to user devices.
Brave also comes with extra features to enhance privacy while browsing the web. Combining HTTPS everywhere allows you to use web encryption whenever possible.
The Fingerprinting feature prevents third parties from tracking user activity. This feature can be enabled in the Settings tab.
Brave browser loading speed is also very fast. Brave's fast browsing is due to its lack of third-party advertising support. Therefore, there is very little content to download before visiting a favorite website. However, Brave's rendering speed is a bit lower than that of Google Chrome and Mozilla.

You will be paid to browse the web if desired

In the past, getting paid to browse the web was a distant dream. However, Brave browser has made that dream come true. All you have to do is activate Brave ads. Watch ads and get 15% of revenue. Content creators will be supported by users who love the content.
All payments are in BAT token format. This is a very great feature of Brave and BitcoinVN browser will help people learn more about this section "How to make money from Brave browser".

Mechanism of reward payment in Brave browser

Brave will pay rewards to viewers who see ads through the BAT (Basic Attention Token) coin - Tokens based on Ethereum technology can also be used as an account unit between advertisers, publishers and users. in Blockchain-based digital advertising and services platform.
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For example: When you use the Brave browser to access the content on the website https://news.bitcoinvn.io/ exam we will receive regular money from Brave. In contrast, you will also receive regular money from Brave when accepting to view the web without enabling Brave's ad blocking function.
This means that you accept viewing ads from other units running on the Brave browser and Brave will pay this fee to you. Of course, not only do you see ads but banner ads on websites instead of being turned off will appear as usual when viewed with Chrome.
Existing digital ad delivery depends on tracking browsing history, search query cookies and third parties. Brave does not support these. Integrating BAT into the browser involves the implementation of the BAT Ads system. The system displays ads to users based on information stored locally with this data. Targeting ads is much easier than regular web browsers.
This Brave browser model promotes privacy protection. The web browser history is kept private because all the data needed to deliver appropriate ads never leaves your system. The use of inappropriate ads is the reason people do not want to continue using the browser but Brave has completely removed that to increase the user experience. Therefore. It can be said that the BAT represents a fundamental revision of the way digital advertising is delivered. The time users see ads should not be wasted but users have to be paid for that.

Brave's reward system for content creators and users

Content creators depend on ads to stay active. However, ads are not displayed on the Brave browser so how does the Brave browser support online advertisers?
To solve that, the Brave browser takes a unique approach when it comes to compensating creators. The awards are made through the Brave Ads network and user contributions. Content creators will be required to register with the network before being eligible for revenue. By then, the registered content creator will earn 55% of the alternative advertising revenue.
Brave comes with a wallet BAT available, for this allows users to support your favorite sites. Users can download the wallet and distribute a specified amount of BAT to favorite websites, the wallet can be loaded via Bitcoin , Litecoin, Ethereum and BAT tokens. Credit cardholders use the Uphold payment processor. You can set a monthly BAT budget to be automatically distributed to frequently visited websites. You also have the right to set a percentage to be contributed. You will not have to see any ads but still support your favorite website.
Users can earn BAT by browsing Brave enabled sites. If the user agrees to replace the regular ads with anonymous ads from Brave ho will be paid in Basic Attention Token (BAT). Users will receive 15% of revenue. Revenue depends on the time spent on the Brave browser.
However, you must enable Brave ads because the browser blocks all ads by default. Before receiving any payment, you need to activate the wallet BAT token. For users who do not want to support any website, they will not earn money nor contribute to any favorite websites. But in return can browse the web very quickly.

Instructions to download Brave to your device

Step 1: First, click and download the software according to the corresponding link below:

After downloading, you choose to agree to install like other software. Brave interface similar to Firefox, you can get acquainted and use very easily. However, you should note that transferring the data you are using from another browser
Select Edit menu in the upper right corner> Settings> click Import Now button, then select the browser you are using. Brave will automatically import old data such as bookmarks, History, Cookies from the old browser.
📷
This is the interface when you have successfully downloaded the Brave browser
📷

Step 2: Then you open a Brave account, set up the Brave Payment wallet (Brave electronic wallet), which appears as shown below:

📷
After this step, you will be able to receive 25 BAT (corresponding to 8 $). With this money you can donate to other content creators.

Step 3: Register Content Publisher on Brave browser

You access the following link: https://publishers.basicattentiontoken.org/ . Select Get Start to be Content Publisher.
📷
You enter your Email and then verify your account.
📷

Step 4: The next thing you have to do is select the channel to create your own Content such as Website, Youtube by entering + Add Channel.

📷
When you finish the steps will appear as shown below
📷

Epilogue

The article has introduced you useful information about Brave browser and how to make money with Brave Token (BAT).
Further reference: What is DApp?
Join the community of BitcoinVN to become the fastest market bearer: https://t.me/bitcoinvn_community
submitted by thanhlam2000 to BraveBat [link] [comments]

How to identify a potentially profitable cryptocurrency How to Submit a Request to CoinEx Customer Service - YouTube feltetdk - YouTube How Can You Verify Coinbase Account With Photo ID? 100% ... Free Bitcoin Miner 2020  Bitcoin mining FreeI New Free ...

Identification. Identification is the act of confirming that the person who registers to use a service is, in fact, that person. In most cases, it is confirmed by checking that the name, birth date, and address match those on a driver's license or passport. BitFlyer uses multiple methods to authenticate individuals. By using multiple methods of ... Eine mobile App für Bitcoin Future ist derzeit nicht verfügbar. Im Wesentlichen verkaufte die Website gefälschte Bitcoin. Ich denke, es hat viel damit zu tun, dass mein Konto schwedisch ist. Ich weiß nicht, ob für jeden Benutzer die gleichen Regeln gelten. Diese Website hat einen geschätzten Wert von 8 US-Dollar. Zum einen ist das vermeintliche Interesse auf dem spekulativen Markt ... Summary: Buying Bitcoin with Credit Card No Verification. Go to the Coin ATM Map website.; Search out the ATM location near you. Head over to the machine location to buy bitcoins with cash.; Bitcoin ATMs generate a paper wallet – or offline wallet with a public key (your bitcoin wallet address) and a private/secret key (allowing bitcoins to be spent). Bitcoin ECDSA public keys represent a point on a particular Elliptic Curve (EC) defined in secp256k1. In their traditional uncompressed form, public keys contain an identification byte, a 32-byte X coordinate, and a 32-byte Y coordinate. The extremely simplified illustration below shows such a point on the elliptic curve used by Bitcoin, y2 ... A new identification and reference standard for the decentralized economy . Acknowledging the market‘s need for more standardization in order to grow and mature, the International Token ...

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How to identify a potentially profitable cryptocurrency

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